RegencVillasy at Ashburn

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Regency at Ashburn features brand new singlelevel condominiums in an amenityrich gated activeadult community.

Regency at Ashburn is a gated community with private amenities in the heart of Ashburn, just minutes from shopping, dining, and Washington D.C.

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From Route WestExit right and stay in left lane to left turn onto Loudoun County Pkwy/Rt . Proceed / mi. and turn right onto Marlblehead Dr. Continue / mile to left turn onto Rubble Ter. into the community. Then, follow the signs to our sales center and models.

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Premier Ashburn activeadult community with recreational amenities, including clubhouse with fitness center, swimming pools, biking/walking paths, and neighborhood parks.

From the ,squarefoot Sports Pavilion, to the lakes and trails throughout, abundant choices for leisurely pursuits are available to you at nearby Ashburn Village.

Regency at Ashburn consists of the following collection

Enjoy cultural events, fine dining, bulous shopping, and a wide variety of recreational activities in nearby Leesburg, Herndon, Reston, and Faix.

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The Greenbrier at Regency at Ashburn is the newest active adult community in Ashburn featuring brand new singlelevel condominiums.

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Villa AriellaCindy Sherman

Katharina Schmidt Marc Scheps, Cindy Sherman, Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany

Roberta Smith, The EverShifting Selves of Cindy Sherman, Girlish Vamp to Clown, New York Times, May, E

Helen Molesworth, The Comfort of Objects Helen Molesworth on Cindy Shermans Untitled Film Stills Years on, Frieze, London, September/October, pp.

The American Exhibition, The Art Institute of Chicago catalogue

Imitation of Life, Broad Museum, Los Angeles, California catalogue

Collecting Biennials,Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Vertiges, Printemps de septembre a Toulouse Festival of Contemporary Images, Toulouse, France

Cindy Sherman Photoarbeiten , introduction by Zdenek Felix and Martin Schwander, by Elisabeth Bronfen and Ulf Erdmann Ziegler, Deichtorhallen Hamburg, Malmo Konsthall, Kunstmuseum Luzern, Switzerland

Notorious, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, United Kingdom

Working Girl, Essay by Catherine Morris, Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis, Missouri

Whitney Biennial, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

Witness, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illinois

Bad ThoughtsStedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Out of Fashion Photography Embracing Beauty,Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Richard Rhodes, Cindy Shermans Film Stills, Parachute, SeptemberOctober, pp. and cover

Biennial Exhibition, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

Lee Lescaze, Making Faces A Photographer Dressed up for Success, The Wall Street Journal, November , p.

Jurgen Klauke Cindy Sherman, Sammlung Goetz, Munich

Andy Grundberg, Cindy Shermans Dark Fantasies Evoke a Primitive Past, The New York Times, October

Visions from America Photographs from the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, pp. , ,

Inverted Odysseys, Claude Cahun, Maya Deren, Cindy Sherman, ed. by Shelly Rice, Massachussets Institute of Technology; Grey Art Gallery, New York University; Museum of Contemporary Art, North Miami

R. Forges, Cindy Sherman, Art Issues, January/February, p.

Dike Blair, A Chat with Cindy Sherman, Flash Art, March/April, p.

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas catalogue

Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Cindy Sherman has exhibited extensively throughout the United States and Europe. Recent solo exhibitions of her work have been held in institutions such as the Jeu de Paume in Paris and Kunsthaus in Bregenz, Austria in , the Contemporary Art Museum in St. Louis in and the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in Edinburgh in . She has also participated in exhibitions in major institutions such as the Tate Modern and the Barbican Art Gallery in London, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, and the Museum of Modern Art in New York which is currently planning a major retrospective of her work that is slated for early . Sherman has also participated in two Venice Biennales and five Whitney Biennials, and her work has been featured in multiple publications. Cindy Sherman currently lives and works in New York.

Cindy Sherman, essay by Marianne Stockebrand, Westlischer Kunstverein, Munster, Germany

The Eighties A Decade of Extremes, Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen, Belgium

Making it Up Photographic Fictions,Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Peter Plagens, Into the Fun House, Newsweek, August , pp.

Untitled Horrors,Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden; Astrup Fearnley Museet, Oslo, Norway

The New Art, Tate Gallery, London, United Kingdom

Modern Contemporary Art at MoMA Since , Kirk Varnedoe, Paola Antonelli, Joshua Siegel ed., Museum of Modern Art, New York, pp. , , , , , , ,

Cindy Sherman, Fitchers Bird, Rizzoli, New York

Queen Female Artists from the Olbricht Collection, me Collectors Room Berlin/Stiftung Olbricht, Berlin, Germany

Early Work of Cindy Sherman, foreword by Edsel Williams, Glenn Horowitz Bookseller, New York

Behind the Mask,The New Art Gallery Wasall, Wasall, United Kingdom

Wayne Koestenbaum, Fall Gals, Artforum, September, pp. and cover

Directions , Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C. catalogue

Jamey Gambrell, Marginal Acts, Art in America, March, pp.

Visions from America Photographs from the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

ABBILD Recent Portraiture and Depiction, Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria

Ursula Pia Jauch, I am Always the Other, Parkett, Zurich, no. , pp.

Cindy Sherman was born in Glen Ridge, New Jersey in . She graduated from Buflo State College in New York in . Early on, Sherman eslished photography as her primary medium of expression. She is widely known for her selfreflexive photographs and films in which she impersonates a wide variety of characters. In general, her photographs are a commentary on the female condition and the stereos that confine womens role within society and culture. One of Shermans most mous series isfrom shot in black and white, in which she poses as characters reminiscent of Hollywood stars. Later in her career, Sherman introduced to her work and continued creating series that focused on different themes. Images of uality, the perverse, the ntastic and even portraits made in the of the old masters invite the viewer to interpret uncanny narratives centered around the female gender and the role it plays within our culture.

From Beyond the Pale Cindy Sherman Photographs , Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin

Retrospective, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California

Norman Bryson, The Ideal and the Abject, Parkett, Zurich, no. , pp.

Beg Borrow and Steal,The Rubell Family Collection, Miami, Florida

Just What Is itZKM Zentrum Fr Kunst und Medientechnologie, Karlsruhe, Germany

Christa Schneider, Cindy Sherman History Portraits, Schirmer Mosel, Munich

Picasso in Contemporary Art, Deichtorhallen Hamburg, Germany catalogue

Off the Wall Part Thirty Performative Actions,Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Un Certain tat du Monde?Garage Center for Contemporary Culture, Moscow, Russia

Elizabeth Bronfen, Over Her Dead Body, Manchester University Press

John Slyce, Beyond Recognition The Unidentifiable Cindy Sherman, Portfolio, London, December, No. , pp.

Energies, The Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands catalogue

Cindy Sherman, essays by Peter Schjeldahl and Els Barents, Schirmer/Mosel, Munich, Germany

Eye to I , Years of Portraits,Katonah Museum of Art, Katonah, New York

Cheryl Kaplan, Cindy Sherman, Tema Celeste, JanuaryFebruary, p.

Cindy Sherman, essays by Betty van Garrel, Verena Lueken, Hal Foster, Margrit Brehm, Peter Schjeldahl, Museum Boijmansvan Beuningen, Rotterdam

Monument to Now The Dakis Joannou Collection, DESTE Foundation for Contemporary Art, Athens, Greece catalogue

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, Massachusetts

Janet Kraynak, Cindy Sherman at Metro Pictures, Documents, Fall, pp.

Metamorphosis Cindy Sherman Photographs, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio

Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas brochure

Hugo Williams, Her Dazzling Career, Cindy Sherman at the Saatchi Collection, Times Literary Supplement, London, January, p.

Mirror Images Women, Surrealism and SelfRepresentation, MIT List Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Miami Art Museum; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California

The Unseen Cindy ShermanEarly Transformations /, Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, New Jersey catalogue

Abigail SolomonGodeau, Suile for Framing, Parkett, Zurich, no. , pp.

American Visionaries, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, p.

Klaus Biesenbach ed., Into Me / Out of Me, Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern, pp.

The Dissolve,Santa Fe Eighth International Biennal, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane, Australia; City Gallery, Wellington, New Zealand catalogue

Cindy Sherman, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Fotomuseum Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland

First Light A Decade of Collecting at the ICA, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Massachusetts

Louise Lawler, Cindy Sherman, Laurie Simmons, Kunsternes Hus, Oslo; Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki

Image World Art and Media Culture, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

Mark Stevens, How I Made It Cindy Sherman on her Untitled Film Stills, New York, April , pp.

Jurgen Klauke Cindy Sherman, Sammlung Goetz, Munich catalogue

Von Beuys bis Cindy Sherman Sammlung Lothar Schirmer, Kunsthalle, Bremen, Germany catalogue

Emily B. Greenberg, Cindy Sherman and the Female Grotesque, Art Criticism, vol. , no. , pp.

Inverted Odysseys Claude Cahun, Maya Deren, Cindy Sherman, Grey Art Gallery, New York University; Museum of Contemporary Art, Miami, Florida

Art History Aesthetics Visual Studies, editors Michael Ann Holly Keith Moxey, essay by Michael Kelly, Yale University Press, New Haven, pp.

A Play of Selves, Hatje Cantz Verlag, Metro Pictures, New York

Gabby Wood, Im Every Woman, The Observer, London, May

Paparazzi! Photographers, Stars and Artists,Centre PompidouMetz, Paris, France. Traveled to Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Germany; Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku, Azerbaijan ; Musee de lEysee, Lausanne, France

Andrew Johnston, Office Killer, Time Out, December , p.

Glam! The Performance of Style,Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany

Francesco Bonami ed., Cindy Sherman, Mondadori Electa S.p.A., Milan, Italy

Manipulating Reality,Centro di Cultura Contemporanea a Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy

Triennale Exhibition Sentiment of the Year , Triennale di Milano, Milan, Italy

Biennale di Firenze, Florence, Italy catalogue

The Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin catalogue

Ken Johnson,Cindy Sherman and the AntiSelf An Interpretation of Her Imagery, Arts Magazine, November, pp.

A Bigger Splash Painting After Performance,Tate Modern, London, United Kingdom

American Art of This Century, MartinGropiusBau, Berlin, Germany; Royal Academy of Arts, London, United Kingdom catalogue

Projections, Ydessa Hendeles Art Foundation, Toronto, Canada

Mark Van Proyen, Cindy Sherman, New Art Observer, October, p.

Wrestle Marieluise Hessel Collection, Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College, AnnadaleonHudson, New York, pp.

Hatje Cantz Verlag, Flashback Revisiting the Art of the s, Kunstmuseum Basel, Museum fur Gegenwartskunst, Switzerland

FeminiMasculin Le Sexe de lArt?, Centre Georges Pompidou, Muse dArt Moderne, Paris, France catalogue

Theater without Theater, Museum of Contemporary Art, Barcelona, Spain;

Judith Williamson, Images of Women The Photography of Cindy Sherman, Knowing Women Feminism and Knowledge, Great Britian The Open University, pp. reprint from Screen,

Tableaux Vivants, Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna, Austria catalogue

Julie Rouard ed., Cindy Sherman, Jeu de Paume Flammarion, Paris, France

Phoebe Hoban, Shermans March, Vogue, February, pp. ,

Portrait/Homage/Embodiment, Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts, St. Louis, Missouri

Hautnah The Goetz Collection, Museum Villa Stuck, Munich, Germany catalogue

Content A Contemporary Focus, , Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C. catalogue

Cindy Sherman, Serpentine Gallery, London, United Kingdom

Currents Cindy Sherman, Milwaukee Museum of Art

Jamey Gambrell, Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures, Artforum, February, pp.

Life, Death, Love, Hate, Pleasure, Pain, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illinois catalogue

Simon Ford, Head to Head Cindy Sherman and Barbara Kruger in London, Art Monthly, London, JulyAugust , no. , pp. cover

Nothing Personal, Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois

Cindy Sherman, essays by Amelia Arenas, Chika Mori, Akio Obigane, sachiko Osaki, interview with Noriko Fuku, Museum of Modern Art, Shiga, Japan; Marugame GenichiroInokuma Museum of Contemporary Art; Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo

Michael Brenson, Art Whitney Shows Cindy Sherman Photos, The New York Times, July , C

XLVI Esposizione Internazionale dArte , La Biennale di Venezia, Venice, Italy catalogue

Off the Wall,The Serralves Museum of Contemporary Art, Porto, Portugal

Hyper Mental, Kunsthaus Zrich/Hamburger Kunsthalle, Germany, p.

The Century of the Body Photoworks , Muse de lElyse, Lisbon, Portugal

Kate Linker, Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures, Artforum, January, p.

Hilton Als, She Came From SoHo, The New Yorker, April, pp.

New York New York Fifty Years of Art, Architecture, Cinema, Performance, Photography and Video, Grimaldi Forum, Monaco catalogue

Aware Art Fashion Identity,Royal Academy, London, United Kingdom

Dike Blair, Cindy Sherman Metro Pictures, Flash Art, March April, p.

Cindy Sherman Retrospective, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illinois; Galerie Rudolfinum, Prague; capc Muse, Bordeaux; Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada

Double Life, Generali Foundation, Vienna, Austria catalogue

Peter Schjeldahl, Master Class, The Village Voice, February , p.

Art Now, Uta Grosenick Burkhard Riemschneider ed., Taschen, Cologne, pp.

Panic Attack! Art in the Punk Years, Barbican Art Gallery, London, United Kingdom catalogue

History Portraits, essay by Arthur C. Danto, Rizzoli, New York and Schirmer/Mosel, Munich

Cindy Sherman Talks to David Frankel, interview with David Frankel, Artforum, March, pp. ,

Basel Kunsthalle, Basel, Switzerland; Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst, Munich, Germany; The Whitechapel Gallery, London, United Kingdom catalogue

Vince Aletti, The Lady Vanishes, Village Voice, November, p.

Mixed Use Manhattan,Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain

Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo, Japan

Art and Its Double A New York Perspective, Fundacio Caixa de Pensions, Barcelona; La Caixa de Pensions, Madrid, Spain catalogue

Untitled Film Stills Cindy Sherman, essay by Arthur Danto, Schirmer Mosel, Munich and Rizzoli, New York

On the Edge Contemporary Art from the Werner and Elaine Dannheisser Collection, The Museum of Modern Art, New York catalogue

Australian National Gallery, Canberra, Australia

Cindy Sherman, essays by Robert Leonard and Priscilla Pitts, The National Art Gallery, New Zealand

Biennial Exhibition, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

Cindy Sherman, essay by Christian Caujolle, Musee dArt et dIndustrie SaintEtienne, France

Masquerade, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Australia

Rijksmuseum KrollerMuller, Otterlo, The Netherlands

Gender Performance in Photography, Soloman R. Guggenheim Museum, New York catalogue

I, You, We,Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

LInforme le Modernisme a Rebours, Centre Georges Pompidou, Muse National dArt Moderne, Paris, France catalogue

WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution, The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington D.C.; MoMA PS, Long Island City, New York catalogue

A Forest of Signs Art in the Crisis of Representation, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California catalogue

Cindy Sherman Photographs, essay by Linda Cathcart, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston

Michael Kimmelman, Portraitist in the Halls of Her Artistic Ancestors, New York Times, May, C, C

Masquerade Role Playing in SelfPortraiture, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California

University Art Museum, University of California, Berkeley, California

Craig Owens, The Allegorical Impulse Toward a Theory of Postmodernism, Part , October , Summer, pp.

Peter Schjeldahl, Shermanettes, Art in America, March, pp.

Zeichen Wunder, Kunsthaus Zurich, Switzerland catalogue

Hamburger Bahnhof Museum fur Gegenwart, Berlin, Germany

Hautnah The Goetz Collection, Museum Villa Stuck, Munich pp.

Cindy Sherman Early Works,Contemporary Art Space/Gucci Museum, Florence, Italy

Andrew Wilson, Cindy Sherman, Art Monthly, DecemberJanuary, pp.

Museum Boymansvan Beuningen, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Prince, Sherman WarholJanuary February , Summer Group ShowJuly August , Cindy ShermanNovember December , Cindy ShermanMay June , Cindy ShermanMay July , Summer Group ShowPublicationsCindy Sherman and David SalleCindy Sherman and David SalleCindy ShermanSelected PressThe New YorkerNovember View PDF K

Elfriede Jelinek, Sidelines, Parkett, no. , pp.

Herbert Muschamp, Knowing Looks, Artforum, Summer, pp.

Amei Wallach, Tough Images to Face, Los Angeles Times, June

Iniduals A Selected History of Contemporary Art, , Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles catalogue

Museum of Modern Art, Shiga, Japan; Marugame GenichiroInokuma Museum of Contemporary Art, Marugame, Japan; Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan catalogue

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California

Brooks Adams, Cindy Sherman at Metro Pictures, Art in America, June, p.

Implosion A Postmodern Perspective, Moderna Museet, Stockholm catalogue

Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland

Charlotte Mullins, Living Doll, Financial Times, London, June

Germano Celant and Lisa Dennison, New York New York Fifty Years of Art, Architecture, Cinema, Performance, Photography and Video, Skira, Monaco, pp. .

Moving Pictures, Solomon R. Guggenhein Museum, New York

Barbara Pollack, The Best Living Artists SelfDenial, Artnews, December, p.

Reading Cinema, Finding Words Art after Marcel Broodthaers,The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto, Japan

Wrestle, Hessel Museum of Art, Bard College, AnnandaleonHudson, New York catalogue

Rosalind E. Krauss, Cindy Shermans Gravity A Critical Fable, Artforum, September, pp. ,

The s A Topology, Ulrich Loock ed, Museu Serralves, Portugal, pp.

Superstars von Warhol bis Madonna, Kunsthalle Wien BACA Kunstforum, pp. , ,

Lets Entertain, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota catalogue; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France; Portland Art Musuem, Portland, Oregon; Museo Rufino Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico catalogue; Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, Wolfsburg, Germany; Miami Art Museum, Miami, Florida catalogue

Surreal Versus Surrealism in Contemporary Art,Institut Valenci dArt Modern, Valencia, Spain

Museu de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo, Brazil catalogue

Cindy Sherman, essays by Peter Schjeldahl and I. Michael Danoff, Pantheon Books, New York

Cindy Sherman Specimens, Art Random Kyoto Shoin International

Deborah Drier, Cindy Sherman at Metro Pictures, Art in America, January

Guild Hall Academy of the Arts Lifetime Achievement Award for Visual Arts

Dave Hickey, Best of the s, Artforum, December, pp.

Laura Mulvey, A Phantasmagoria of the Female Body The Work of Cindy Sherman, New Left Review, , JulyAugust, pp.

Betsy Berne, Studio Visit Cindy Sherman, TATE Arts and Culture, London, May/June, pp.

Jasper Johns to Jeff Koons Four Decades of Art from the Broad Collections, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California

Contemporanea, Fundacin Juan March, Madrid, Spain, catalogue

Arts Foods. Rituals since , The Milan Triennial, Milan, Italy

Peter Schjeldahl, Portrait She is a Camera, Days, March, pp.

Eight Artists The Anxious Edge, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota catalogue

Carnegie International, The Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania catalogue

Brook S. Mason, Shermans March, Artnews, September, p.

Condo, de Kooning, Fischl, Haring, Prince, Salle, Sherman, Wool

Arthur C. Danto, Art Cindy Sherman, The Nation, August, pp.

Jeu de Paume, Paris, France; Kunsthaus Bregenz, Austria; Louisiana Museum for Moderne Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark; Martin Gropius Bau, Berlin, Germany catalogue

Cindy Sherman, ed. by Gunilla Knape, Hasselblad Center, Goteborg, Sweden

Cannibalism? On Appropriation in Art, Zacheta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw, Poland

Johanna Burton, Cindy Sherman Retrospective, Artforum, May, pp. .

Into the Sunset,Museum of Modern Art, New York

The Essential Cindy Sherman, The Wonderland Press/Abrams, New York

Jan Avgikos, Cindy Sherman Burning Down the House, Artforum, Jan., pp.

The Deconstructive Impulse Women Artists Reconfigure the Signs of Power, ,The Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

Back to Earth,Gerisch Stiftung, Neumnster, Germany

Gesammelte Werke Zeitgenössische Kunst seit , Kunstmuseum, Wolfsburg, Wolfsburg, Germany

Andy Grundberg, Cindy Sherman A Playful and Political Post Modernist, New York Times, November

Bilderstreit, Mense Rhineside Halls, Cologne, Germany

Louise Lawler, Cindy Sherman, Laurie Simmons, Kunsternes Hus, Oslo; Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki, Finland catalogue

Looking Forward, Gifts of Contemporary Art from the Patricia A. Bell Collection,Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, New Jersey

American Exuberance,Rubell Family Collection, Contemporary Arts Foundation, Miami, Florida

The Feminist AvantGarde of the s Works from Sammlung Verbund Collection, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Germany catalogue

Human Interest Portraits from the Whitney Collection, The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Rosemary Robotham, OneWoman Show Cindy Sherman Puts Her Best Face Foward, Life Magazine, June, pp.

Mapping the Studio Artists from the Francois Pinault Collection,Punta Delle Dogana/Palazzo Grassi, Venice, Italy

Cindy Sherman The Self Which Is Not One, essay by Carlos Basualdo, Museu de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo, Brazil

Neville Wakefield, Cindy Sherman, Artforum, April, p.

Richard Flood, Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures, Artforum, March, p.

David Pagel, Sherman is the Very Picture of How Others Fall Short, Los Angeles Times, April, F

Regarding Beauty, Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C. catalogue

Pletskud, Arken Museum for Moderne Kunst, Skøvej, Germany

Disparities Deformations Our Grotesque, th International Site Santa Fe Bienniale, Site Santa Fe, New Mexico catalogue

Through the Looking Brain,Kunstmuseum, St. Gallen, Switzerland; Kunstmuseum, Bonn, Germany

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California

World Morality, Kunsthalle, Basel, Switzerland catalogue

La Biennale di Venezia, Venice, Italy catalogue

Catherine Millet, Cindy Sherman/Nicolas Ghesquire, French Vogue, August, pp.

Peter Schjeldahl, Valley of the Dolls, The New Yorker, June, pp.

Cindy Sherman and David Salle History Portraits and Tapestry Paintings

Jasper Johns to Jeff Koons Four Decades of Art from the Broad Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts

Carnegie International, Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania catalogue

Gabriele Schor, Cindys Original Scene, Held Together With Water, Sammlung Verbund, Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern, pp.

Westlischer Kunstverein, Munster, West Germany catalogue

History Portraits, Skarstedt Gallery, New York

Serpentine Gallery, London; Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Scotland

Richard B. Woodward, Fun to Look Different, Art News, May, p.

Miranda Sawyer, The Invisible Woman, The Observer Life Weekend Segment, England, pp.

Michael Kimmelman, Cindy Sherman, New York Times, November, p. E

Whitney Biennial, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

Peter Plagens, The Odd Allure of Movies Never Made, Newsweek, June , pp.

Brian DAmato, Cindy Sherman Limbless Hermaphrodites and Dismembered Devil Dogs, Flash Art, Summer, p.

Rosalind Krauss, Cindy Sherman , Rizzoli, New York

Une Vision Qui Se Deploie, interviewed by Arthur Danto, Art Press, May, pp.

Nude art from the Tate Collection, New South Wales Art Gallery, Sydney, Australia

Andrew Menard, Cindy Sherman The Cyborg Disrobes, Art Criticism, vol. , no. , pp.

Gerals Marzorati, Shermans March, Vanity Fair, October

The St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis Missouri brochure

Gerald Mazeroti, SelfPossessed, Vanity Fair, October

Condo, GonzalezTorres, Kelley, Prince, Salle, Sherman, Trockel, Wool

Double Life, Sabine Breitwieser ed., Generali Foundation, Vienna, Austria

Roberta Smith, A Horror Movie, Complete with Zombies, The New York Times, November , p.

Jan Avgikos, Reviews Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures, Artforum, September, p.

Milwaukee Art Museum; Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, Florida; The Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota brochure

Roberta Smith, Film Starlet Clichs, Genuine and Artificial at the Same Time, New York Times, Arts and Leisure, June, C

Fashioning Fiction In Photographing Since , Museum of Modern Art, New York catalogue

The Readymade Boomerang, Eighth Biennial of Sydney, Sydney, Australia catalogue

Haunted Contemporary Photography/Video/Performance,Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Metropolis, MartinGropiusBau, Berlin catalogue

Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures, New York catalogue

Roberta Smith, Art Cindy Sherman at Metro Pictures, The New York Times, May

An Imagined Museum Works from the Pompidou, Tate and MMK Collections, Museum fr Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, Germany

Musee dArt et dIndustrie de Saint Etienne, Saint Etienne, France catalogue

The Fifth Biennale of Sydney, Private Symbol Social Metaphor, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia catalogue

Street and Studio, Tate Modern, London, United Kingdom; Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany catalogue

Directions Cindy Sherman Film Stills, Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C. brochure

Insert Cindy Sherman, Parkett, Zurich, no. , pp.

Culture and Commentary, The Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C. catalogue

Cindy Sherman Centerfolds, Skarstedt Fine Art, New York catalogue

Guild Hall, East Hampton, New YorkCindy Sherman Working Girl, Contemporary Art Museum, St. Louis, Missouri catalogue

Held Together With Water, Sammlung Verbund, MAK, Vienna, Austria catalogue

David Gleeson, Reviews Cindy Sherman, Time Out London, January , p.

Untitled Film Stills, National Gallery of Iceland, Reykjavk, Iceland

Stephen W. Melville, The Time of Exposure Allegorical SelfPortraiture in Cindy Sherman, Arts Magazine, January, pp.

David Rimanelli, New York Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures, Artforum, Summer, p.

La La La Human Steps,Istanbul Museum of Modern Art, Istanbul, Turkey

Charles Gandee, Women on the Verge, Talk, May, p.

Was ist Schön?Deutsches HygeineMuseum, Dresden, Germany

Reflecting Fashion,Museum Moderner Kunst Mumok, Vienna, Austria

Venice Biennale, th International Art Exhibition, Venice, Italy

Panic Attack! Art in the Punk Years, Mark Sladen and Ariella Yedgar ed., Merrell Publishers

Third ICP Triennial of Photography and Video,International Center of Photography Museum, New York

Noriko Fuku, A Woman of Parts, Art in America, June, pp. ,

Roberta Smith, Art, Village Voice, November , p.

Calvin Tompkins, Her Secret Identities, The New Yorker, May, pp.

Last Year in Marienbad A Film as Art, Kunsthalle, Bremen, Germany

Post Human, Muse dArt Contemporain, Pully/Lausanne, Switzerland; Castello di Rivoli, Turin; Deste Foundation, Athens; Deichtorhallen, Hamburg, Germany; Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel catalogue

Molly Nesbit, Bright Light, Big City The s Without Walls, Artforum, pp. ,

Alibis, Centre Pompidou, Musee dArt Moderne, Paris catalogue

Photography Reinvented The Robert E. Meyerhoff and Rheda Becker Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

Cindy Sherman, essay by Thomas Kellein, Basel Kunsthalle, Basel; Whitechapel Art Gallery, London; Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst, Munich

The Eighth Square Gender, Life, and Desire in the Visual Arts Since , The Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany

The Vivisector,Sprth Magers, London, United Kingdom

New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Conneticut

George Condo, Albert Oehlen, David Salle, Thomas Schtte and Cindy Sherman

Women Legends, Leaders and Trailblazers, Vanity Fair, November, p.

Roberta Smith, A Course in Portraiture by an Inidualist with a Camera, New York Times, Arts and Leisure, January, p. C

Christopher Knight, Camera Ready, Los Angeles Times, November, pp. ,

The Pictures Generation ,The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

No Problem Cologne/New York ,David Zwirner, New York

Douglas Crimp, Pictures, October , Spring, pp.

The Complete Untitled Film Stills, Museum of Modern Art, New York

Sammlung Verbund, MAK, Vienna, Austria catalogue

Rick Woodward, Film Stills, Film Comment, April, pp.

Lisa Liebman, Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures, Artforum, March, p.

WHERE ARE WE GOING Selections from the Francios Pinault Collection, Palazzo Grassi, Venice, Italy

Padiglione darte Contemporanea, Milan, Italy catalogue

Flashback Revisiting the Art of the Eighties, Kunstmuseum Museum for Gegenwartskunst, Basel, Switzerland catalogue

Cindy Sherman and Johanna Burton, , Words A Play of Selves, Artforum, January, pp.

Cindy Sherman Photographien , Deichtorhallen Hamburg, Germany; Malmo Kunsthall, Sweden; Kunstmuseum Luzerne, Switzerland cat.

The Museum of Modern Art, New York; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas catalogue

Masken,Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

Body and Soul, The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland

Office Killer, Directed by Cindy Sherman, featurefilm starring Molly Ringwald, Carol Kane, Jeanne Tripplehorn, Barbara Sukowa, Good Machine and Kardana/Swinsky Films

Tom Lubbock, The Makeup Girl, The Independent Review, London, pp.

Cindy Sherman, essays by Peter Schjeldahl and Lisa Phillips, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Massachussetts; The Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas

Douglas Crimp, The Photographic Activity of Postmodernism, October, no. , Winter, pp.

Cindy Sherman A Selection From the Eli Broad Foundations Collection, Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela catalogue

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, United Kingdom

Ken Johnson, Cindy Sherman, Art in America, May, pp.

Mark Stevens, Performance Anxiety, New York, July , pp.

La Grande Parade Portrait de Lartiste en Clown, Galeries nationals du Grand Palais, Paris; National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Canada catalogue

The American Century, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

The Last Picture Show Artists Using Photography , Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; UCLA Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, California; Miami Art Central, Miami, Florida catalogue

Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California

Wilfried Dickhoff, Untitled Nr. , Parkett, Zurich, no. , pp.

Johanna Burton, Cindy Sherman, The October Files, MIT Press, Boston, Massachusetts

Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Riotous Baroque From Cattela to Zurbarn,Guggenheim, Bilbao, Spain

Into Me / Out of Me, MoMA PS, Long Island City, New York; KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin, Germany; MACRO Museo dArte Contemporanea, Rome, Italy catalogue

Cindy Sherman Works from Friends of the Bruce Museum, Bruce Museum, Greenwich, Connecticut catalogue

AvantGarde in the Eighties, Los Angeles County Museum of Art catalogue

J.M. Bernstein, Against Voluptuous Bodies, Stanford University Press, California, pp.

Cindy Sherman The Complete Untitled Film Stills, Museum of Modern Art, New York

Gabriele Schor, Cindys Original Scene Doll Clothes, Parkett, No., pp.

WolfgangHahnPreis Gesellschaft fur Moderne Kunst am Museum Ludwig

Kestnergesellschaft, Hanover, Germany catalogue

America Is Hard to See, The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

The Broad Contemporary Art Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California

The New York TimesNovember View PDF K

Vicki Goldberg, Portrait of a Photographer as a Young Artist, New York Times, October

Inverted Odysseys, Grey Art Gallery, New York catalogue

Jutta Koether, Old Witnesses, Camera Austria, Graz, no. , pp. and cover illustration

No. , Francesca Richer and Matthew Rosenzweig ed., D.A.P., New York, p.

Claire Carolin, Cindy Sherman History Portraits, Contemporary Visual Arts, issue. , p.

Urban Theater New York Art in the s,The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Texas

John Anderson, Office Killer Takes Aim at Horror Genre, The Los Angeles Times, December

Cindy Sherman A Selection From the Eli Broad Foundations Collection, essays by Frederica Palomero Joanne Heyler, Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

Kim Paice, Cindy Sherman, Art in America, May, pp.

Currents . Cindy Sherman, essay by Jack Cowart, St. Louis Art Museum

Edward Leffingwell, Cindy Sherman at Metro Pictures, Art in America, June, p.

Street Life and Home Stories,Villa Stuck, Munich, Germany

Linda Yablonsky, Vanity Fare, Time Out New York, Nov. Dec. , p.

Hal Foster et al., Art Since , Thames Hudson, United Kingdom

Gerald Marzorati, Imitation of Life, Art News, September, pp. cover

Museum Boymansvan Beuningen, Rotterdam; Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain; Sala de Exposiciones REKALDE, Bilbao, Spain; Staatliche Kunsthalle, BadenBaden, Germany catalogue

Thats Me Thats Not Me, Sammlung Verbund, Vertikale Galerie, Vienna, Austria catalogue

Whitney Biennial, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York catalogue

Shanghai Biennale Techniques of the Visible, Shanghai Art Museum, China catalogue

Lilly Wei, Cindy Sherman Metro Pictures, Artnews, September, p.

The Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Gewad, Ghent, Belgium; Watershed Gallery, Bristol, United Kingdom; John Hansard Gallery, University of Southampton, United Kingdom; Palais Stutterheim, Erlangen, West Germany; Haus am Waldsee, West Berlin, Germany; Centre dArt Contemporain, Geneva, Switzerland; Sonja HenieNiels Onstadt Foundation, Copenhagen; Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, Denmark catalogue

Glenn Collins, A Portraitists Romp through Art History, New York Times, February, C, C

Judith Williamson, Images of Woman The Photographs of Cindy Sherman, Screen, London, November/December, pp.

ABBLID Recent Portraiture and Depiction, Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria catalogue

National Art Gallery, Wellington, New Zealand; Waikato Museum of Art and History, Hamilton, New Zealand catalogue

Codex, A Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, San Francisco, California

Hyper Mental, Kunsthaus Zrich, Zrich, Switzerland November , January , ; Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany catalogue

Monument to Now The Dakis Joannou Collection, DESTE Foundation for Contemporary Art, Athens, pp.

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennslyvania

Secrets and Lies, Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, California

Hall of Mirrors Art and Film Since , The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; The Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus, Ohio; Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy; The Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illionis catalogue

Akron Art Museum; Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, Iowa; The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland catalogue

va Forgcs, Cindy Sherman, Art Issues, September/October, p.

On Pictures. Strategies on Appropriation, Gegenwartskunst, Basel, SwitzerlandVilla AriellaCindy Sherman

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Villa AriellaAriella Lu

Villa AriellaAriella LuAriella and Kili have a rivalry between them, as they were shown to be fiercely competitive towards each other during the school festival while trying to decide who would accompany Yuu.

Ariella was born in an unnamed Middle East country, where she lost her parents and her four siblings in one of the frequent wars that occurred there. After witnessing her parents souls being consumed byYellow Hraesvelgr, Ariella developed an intense hatred towards Dragons, something which prompted her to join adragonhating organizationwith ties toNIFL. However, when her powers as a D manifested for the first time, she was sold to ProfessorKenya Miyazawaby her superior. There, Ariella was used by him as a test subject for research purposes, although she was not mistreated. She also eslished a close relationship with Professor Miyazawas daughter,Ren Miyazawa, becoming as close as real siblings. However, when Ren awakened as a D, her ther decided to increase the intensity of his experiments until either she or Ariella died. In order to prevent that, Ariella took Ren and ran away, seeking police protection. As a result, Professor Miyazawa was arrested and Ariella and Ren were sent to Midgard. On the way there, Ariella was contacted by an old acquaintance from NIFL,Lieutenant Shelley, and agreed to become a spy in exchange for the children of the dragonhating organization be sent to school with the money she would make as a D.

Aegis is the name of a shield used by the Goddess Athena in Greek Mythology.

the NIFL troops in during the Leviathan incident, Yuu was still willing to forgive her, prompting Ariella to recount the reasons she had llen for him. However, she still refused to return and engaged Yuu in battle, which was interrupted when she brought down the ceiling, separating them, but not before Yuu used his Ether Wind to transmit his thoughts to her. Afterwards, Ariella rendezvoused withSleipniron the suce, apologizing to Yuu before consuming an unknown capsule and heading out to kill Charlotte.

Shortly before the first operations start, Ariella was assigned to guard Marduks port side with Ren, using cryogens alongside the rest of her classmates to intercept Bahamuts attacks. However, due to Iris output being insufficient to destroy the True Dragon, Brynhildr Class was forced to retreat. During the second operation against Bahamut, Ariella and the rest were focused on defending Marduk from Bahamuts attacks. Despite unexpected intervention from the Sixth True Dragon,Anomalous Dawn Nyarlathotep, Brynhildr Class succeeded in destroying both True Dragons with Shions Antimatter and Iris Catastrophe. However, the ninth calamitys darkness, which was spreading from Bahamuts trail, attempted to consume Ariella and everyone else shortly afterwards, only to be absorbed by Mitsuki through the use of Code Neun.

In Volume , following the battle against Vritra, Ariella joined Brynhildr Class in relocating to a mountain villa in order to evade NIFLs pursuit. During an excursion to a nearby river with Yuu, Iris and Jeanne, Ariella found the opportunity to drag Jeanne away and question her about her true gender under the pre of teaching her how to fish. However, their discussion was cut short when news of Kraken Zweis escape reached them. Following the examination of everyones dragon marks, with Ariellas having changed by thirty percent, it was decided that they should attempt to reason with the hybrid first. Shortly afterwards, however, everyone was informed that intruders were approaching the villa. While Yuu, Jeanne, Kili and Lisa headed out to intercept them, Ariella worked with Firill to create an air barrier in order to defend the villa.

Yuu MononobeIris FreyjaMitsuki MononobeLisa HighwalkerFirill Crest•

When Hraesvelgr attacked during the royal ball, Ariella joined the Dragon Subjugation Squad in intercepting the Dragon. However, all their attacks were ineffective and Hraesvelgr paralyzed everyone with its Ether Wind. Immobilized, Ariella, like the rest, could only watch as Hraesvelgr consumedAlbert Crestssoul, which had attempted to protect Firill, and left. Upon returning to the palace, Ariella visited Yuu in his room and urged him to go and comfort the distraught Firill. After Yuu asked her why she didnt go herself, Ariella revealed to him that her loved ones souls were also consumed by Hraesvelgr, declaring her hatred for the Dragon. When Yuu asked her if she was alright, Ariella replied by saying that the hardships she ced afterwards were more difficult and asked Yuu if he would be willing to listen to her story some time. After he promised to do so, Ariella smiled, calling him a nice person. During the final battle against Hraesvelgr, Ariella joined the Dragon Subjugation Squad in attacking the Dragon after Yuus Noah removed the spirit particles protecting it, succeeding in destroying it. In the aftermath of the battle, Ariella visited Yuu in his room along with the rest of her classmates, and was very embarrassed upon hearing that Firill had proposed to Yuu.

In Volume , afterTear Lightningwas discovered and brought in Midgard, Ariella and the rest of the girls attempted to communicate with her, but were unsuccessful at first. However, she eventually opened up thanks to Yuus guidance, much to Ariellas delight. WhenHekatonkheirattacked Midgard, Ariella was given the task of rounding up the students and leading them to shelter after confirming that noones dragon mark had changed . She also visited Yuu in the infirmary alongside the rest of his classmates in order to check up on him.

Ariella is an expert at antipersonnel combat, being able to restrain other skilled fighters such as Jeanne and fight on par with Yuu without contact.

Take your vorite ndoms with you and never miss a beat

Code Lost Ariella possesses a small part of Colorless Fafnirs scrapped Authority, Code Lost, which was further enhanced after taking in the blood of Loki Jotunheims ther. Although Ariella lost the enhancement following her transformation into Yuus mate, she received a large part of Yuus complete Code Lost when he split the Authority among most of his mates.

Due to the destruction of the villa over the course of the battle, Ariella joined Brynhildr Class in relocating to a nearby volcanic crater lake in order to plan their operation against Kraken Zwei. While the rest of the class headed out to confront the hybrid, Ariella stayed behind alongside Ren and Kili in order to watch over Vritra and the unconscious Mitsuki and prevent any further interference from NIFL. Following the conclusion of the battle, Ariella appeared before Yuu alongside the rest of Brynhildr Class and revealed to him that she was among the girls which he had marked as his mates. When Firill cornered Yuu with her words, Ariella came to his defense alongside Ren. However, upon being asked by Firill if she didnt want Yuu to take responsibility for her and Ren, Ariella stated in an embarrassed tone that she hoped he would take a bit of responsibility.

In Volume , Ariella was led toCharlottes underground cottage alongside the rest of the marked Ds, Vritra, Jeanne and Shion by Haruka in order to hide from NIFL, who were attempting to invade Midgard under the pre of an inspection. When Kili attempted to seduce Yuu that night, Ariella appeared to stop her, warning her that even if she couldnt defeat her, the ensuing commotion would wake Tear up, forcing Kili to take her leave. After Yuu apologized and thanked her, Ariella promised to keep quiet about this incident and expressed her desire for him to become Rens true mily before leaving.

While Yuu and Charlotte were struggling to control their Authorities, Ariella appeared before Yuu alongside the rest of Brynhildr Class, asking him to hand her the lions share of Code Lost since she had a large portion of the scrapped ctor before. Afterwards, she lent her dark matter to Yuu alongside the rest of the girls in order for him to construct the AntiDragon Armament Abyss, which he used to eliminate all traces of Charlottes blood mist from Midgard. When Babel Replica was fired towards the island, Ariella constructed her strongest shield by borrowing dark matter from everyone in order to buy time for Tear to disable the cannon. Following the conclusion of the battle, Ariella took a bath with Yuu at Rens insistence, asking him to touch her dragon mark in order for her to really feel that she had become his kind. However, the tender moment was interrupted by Kili as payback for Ariella interfering with Kilis earlier attempt to seduce Yuu. At that moment, Charlotte, Tear, Shion and Jeanne demanded to join in as well. Although Yuu suggested that they leave, Ariella stated that she didnt mind sharing a bath with everyone and asked him to stay a little longer in an embarrassed tone.

In Volume , Ariella stated that it felt like she had a huge mily while staying together with everyone in Charlottes quarters when the time came to move to Mitsukis quarters. Ariella also participated in the game that would decide who would get the room next to Yuus as a team with Ren, although they were eliminated when Ariella pushed the controller too much and caused the game to hang. The following day, Ariella welcomed Kili, Jeanne, Shion and Vritra to Brynhildr Class alongside the rest of her classmates, praising Tear for her mature attitude along with Ren.

When Yggdrasil started rapidly expanding its branches in order to increase its zone of interference, the Dragon Subjugation Squad started attacking the branches in order to approach Yggdrasils main body, with Ariella teaming up with Ren. After Yuus revelation about his contract with Yggdrasil and his imminent takeover by the Dragon, Ariella scolded him for hiding this and promised to complain properly after the crisis was dealt with. Thanks to Tears new found powers after Kili performed the final modification on her horns, everyone was able to reach Yggdrasils main body. Afterwards, Ariella transferred her thoughts to Yuu alongside the rest of Brynhildr Class, allowing him to fire an enhanced shot from his Noah turret and weaken Yggdrasil. Following the hijacking of Yggdrasils core by Tear, Ariella accompanied everyone back to the lab.

Ariella becomes flustered due to Yuus comments

Juuou Mujin no Fafnir Wiki is a FANDOM Comics Community. Content is available underBYSA.

Ariella is a fifteen year old girl of average , with brown hair and green eyes. She wears a green bow in her hair, which was a gift from Ren, and is usually clad inMidgardAcademys standard female school uniform and wears black knee high socks. Her dragon mark is located in her lower abdomen, just below the navel.

Loki JotunheimHreidmarYuu MononobeJeanne HortensiaMajor General DylanCaptain ShelleyKunato KtinosOtr AxeRegin ClubRobin DarkSigurd GramLancelot IgniteNataku YueAtla

Ariella appeared for the first time in Volume , when she commented on Yuus transmuting a gun being useless against Dragons. When she introduced herself, she stated that she hoped Yuu wouldnt drag them down as she hated weak people. When Yuu was conversing with the rest of the girls from Brynhildr Class, Ariella asked him if it was indeed true that he andIris Freyjawere having special training. When Yuu confirmed this, Ariella stated that while she would be glad if Iris improved, she did not think such a thing was possible in only a few days. Upon hearing Yuu say that he liked her upfront character, Ariella was instantly embarrassed as she thought he was confessing to her. When Yuu expressed his belief that Iris would surprise everyone in the selection test for the Dragon Subjugation Squad, Ariella laughed, stating that if that was true, she would revise her opinion of him. In the following day, Ariella easily passed the selection test and was surprised when Iris did the same, but applauded for her nonetheless. WhenWhite Leviathanattacked Midgard in order to claim Iris as its mate, Ariella, along with Ren andFirill Crest, went to cheer up Iris and was among the members sent to intercept it. After its defeat, Ariella visited Yuu along with the rest of their classmates in order to confirm that he was in good health.

In Volume , Ariella visited the sick Iris alongside the rest of her classmates. During the girls banter on their way to her room, Ariella warned Tear that if Yuu was a pervert, he might do nasty things to her, but was embarrassed when Tear asked her to elaborate. After Brynhildr Class decided on a Japanese tea house as their theme for the upcoming school festival, Ariella joined the cooking practice along with the rest of the class. WhenHaruka Shinomiyaannounced that bothGreen Yggdrasiland Hekatonkheir had disappeared after battling each other, Ariella was just as shocked as the rest of her classmates. During the school festival, Ariella was surprised when Lisa announced that she would introduce Yuu to her parents as her boyfriend, assuming that the two had been in a relationship secretly. After things were clarified, Ariella promised to help Lisa disrupt her engagement alongside the rest of their classmates. During Yggdrasils assault on Midgard, Ariella barely managed to escape from the Dragon with several injuries. After she was found by Haruka, Ariella notified the rest of her classmates that Firill, Iris, Ren and Lisas parents had been captured, and warned them not use Fictional Armaments against Yggdrasil since it could steal their dark matter before passing out. Following the conclusion of the battle, Ariella visited Yuu in the infirmary with the rest of their classmates, stating that he had pushed himself too hard as usual. After Lisas ther said that he approved of Yuu as a prospective suitor for Lisa, Ariella stated that there shouldnt be a problem, since Lisas ther didnt seem intent on forcing Yuu to marry Lisa.

Ariella confronts Jeanne about her true gender

Code Neun As one of Yuus mates, Ariella possesses his Authority, Code Neun. While the true nature of the Authority and its full capabilities are unknown, it was shown to be capable of supressing the Ninth True Dragons End Matter.

Hell GehennaUltimate Wisdom AtlantisTrue Obliteration RagnarokHeavy Tremor NovaEternal Longevity BahamutAnomalous Dawn NyarlathotepDisasterification ApocalypseTranscendent Soul HumanoidDemise Angolmois

Ariella met Ren for the first time when she was brought in by Rens ther. Slowly, the two of them grew close, with Ren coming to regard Ariella as an older sister and Ariella becoming fiercely protective of Ren. She also tends to enjoy teasing Ren, especially on her view of Yuu. Ariella always looked out for her and supported her, and was extremely saddened by the ct that she had to leave her behind when she joined up with the NIFL forces attacking Midgard.

Ariella is shown to have some skill in cooking.

•Ren MiyazawaTear LightningHaruka ShinomiyaCharlotte B. LordMica StuartKili Surtr MuspelheimJeanne HortensiaShion Zwei ShinomiyaMiyako ShinomiyaMayumi

Ariella is capable of flying by using air to levitate from the ground.

In Volume , Ariella was one of the members chosen to participate in the operation againstRed Basilisk. During the trip towards the operations location, Ariella stumbled uponMitsuki MononobeandLisa Highwalkerarguing aboutMiyako Shinomiyas incident, but chose not to interfere due to her unmiliarity with the subject. Afterwards, she admitted to Yuu and Tear, who had also joined her, that she felt very uncomforle with that situation. When a new plan to defeat Basilisk was put into action after the ilure of both NIFLs and Midgards initial plans, Ariella volunteered to descend together with Mistilteinn along with everyone else, using her barriers to defend against Basilisks attacks. The operation was successful and Basilisk was destroyed. Afterwards, Ariella participated in the victory party alongside the rest of the class.

After picking up a battered Kili and an unconscious Jeanne, Ariella was shocked like the rest to find out aboutKraken Zweis existence from Kili. After Haruka informed them of the situation, Ariella headed out to confront Kraken Zwei alongside Yuu, Mitsuki, Iris and Ren. Upon arriving at NIFLs base and being briefed by Haruka, Ariella set out to confront Kraken Zwei alongside everyone else. However, Mitsukis inability to shoot the hybrid led to the Dragon Subjugation Squad burying her inside a mithrilcovered hole instead. Following the success of the operation, Ariella returned to the base alongside the rest of the group, where they were informed by Lisa that Vritra was heading towards their location in order to eliminate Mitsuki, the only person capable of harming Kraken Zwei. Following the destruction of Vritras dragon standin and her near death at the hands of Yuu, Ariella was shocked to discover that her dragon mark was changing as one of the girls who had participated in the battle against Kraken Zwei due to the hybrids ability to mark multiple Ds as mates.

Combat Training Ariella is shown to be a natural fighter and received extensive physical training during her time in the DragonHating Organization.

Ariella embarrassed over her indirect kiss with Yuu

Dark Matter Generation Like every D, Ariella can generate and manipulate dark matter, transmuting it into various objects and substances, like knives, air and flames.

Through Code Lost, Ariellas senses and physical abilities are enhanced to superhuman levels. She fully demonstrated her capabilities during her brief fight with Yuu in Volume , where she was able to evenly match him. Furthermore, as long as the target is human, she can pick the st and most efficient way to kill them. Her capabilities were later augmented to the point where she became an emotionless killer.

Ariella is shown to be capable of sensing dangerous threats, such as killing intent, even outside her field of vision.

Ariella has a tomboyish personality and is noted to be quite straightforward and upfront, respecting only those who win her approval. However, she gets easily embarrassed and flustered when shes complimented. She is also a very kind and caring person. Whenever she gets serious in a fight, Ariella can enough killing intent to even give pause to seasoned warriors likeYuu Mononobe. She also despisesDragonsdue to her experiences with them.

At some point during their visit to the park, Ariella approached Yuu and started explaining her past with Ren and Kenya Miyazawa in an attempt to make Yuu understand Rens circumstances better. She also declared that she hated Kenya for what he had done to Ren and expressed her trust in Yuu. She proceeded to share her lunch with him, but was greatly flustered when Yuu pointed out that this was technically an indirect kiss. When it was time to board the Ferris wheel, Ariella conspired with the rest to have Yuu and Ren share a car by themselves in order to communicate better. Following Tears brief kidnapping by Jeanne Hortensia, Ariella returned back to the lab along with everyone else.

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When NIFL destroyed Midgardsormrs final defensive line with the Main Cannon Babel Replica, Ariella was reminiscing about her past inside the cottage while checking the calls she had received on her terminal. After Jeanne suggested that they should watch the entrances to the cavern, Ariella volunteered for the job, brushing off Yuus worries about her. Later that night, Ariella slipped to the suce and was later on approached by Yuu, who confronted her about her disappearance. When Yuu expressed his wish to support Ariella, she was embarrassed, but stated that she never had any right to be with everyone else. Ariella proceeded to explain that the Dragonhating organization she had stayed at previously had ties with NIFL and that she had been acting as a spy for NIFL at the behest of a former cadre of the organization. After explaining why her Fictional Armament had the form of a defensive gear, Ariella handed over her ribbon, which was Rens first gift to her, to Yuu and announced her intent to kill Charlotte. Despite that and the revelation that she was the one who let

Upon returning to her senses, Ariella broke down crying, but was comforted by Yuu. She was then welcomed back by the rest of the girls, with Ren urging her to thank everyone. When Yuu complimented her figure, especially her legs, in response to her query about her feminine charm, Ariella was greatly flustered, accusing him of lacking delicacy. After that, she helped Yuu restrain Sleipnir, while also explaining to him that their strange behavior was the result of having consumed a capsule containing blood, and prepared to head to the suce alongside the rest. Upon arriving there, everyone was shocked to see that a blood mist was covering Midgard and had rendered everyone unconscious. AfterMicainformed everyone that this was a result of Charlotte losing control of her powers, Ariella declared that this was probably the true nature of Charlottes Authority. However, before she could elaborate, an explosion was heard from the front gate, forcing everyone to rush there. Upon arriving there, the group encountered Major Loki, accompanied by twoHreidmars. After a brief discussion between Yuu and Loki, Ariella was urged to flee alongside the rest of the girls by Yuu due to Lokis Code Lost being able to kill people by thought alone.

After Charlotte announced her intent to hold a school festival and Brynhildr Class decided to help with Harukas yakisoba stall, Ariella joined the rest of her classmates in learning how to make yakisoba during their weekend barbecue beach party. While on the beach, Ariella approached Yuu and was embarrassed when he caught him staring at her legs. Despite that, she was also happy over the ct that Yuu was treating her as a proper girl. When Ren also asked Yuu if he considered her a proper girl, Ariella urged him to answer honestly, but was then forced to chase after Ren following her hasty retreat to the water out of embarrassment. Later on, Ariella and the rest of the girls were convinced that Yuu had a fetish for breasts due to Shions misleading words, with Ariella asking him not to stare while cutting ingredients. During the festival, Ariella and Kili ended up competing in a ring tossing game for the privilege of accompanying Yuu in touring the stalls. However, due to the ct that their skill was equal, their competition ended with no winner and they were forced to return back to the yakisoba stall for their shift.

Although Ariella was intially grateful to Kenya for treating her humanely even though he used her in experiments, her attitude towards him started changing when she witnessed his behaviour towards Ren. As such, Ariella came to hate Kenya, regarding him as the worst ther ever. She even went as r as attempting to punch him during their reunion before being stopped by Yuu.

Ariella during her visit to Iris with Ren and Firill

In Volume , Ariella was dispatched toAsgards First Laboratory in Tokyo alongside the rest of Brynhildr Class in order to participate in the proposed plan against Yggdrasil. Upon encountering Kenya Miyazawa after their arrival and witnessing his dismissive attitude towards her and Ren, Ariella attempted to attack him in anger, but was restrained by Yuu. After thanking him for stopping her, she revealed to him that she was Kenyas adopted daughter and that Ren was his biological daughter, but the two of them did not consider him their mily. Following Kilis assault on the lab, Ariella participated in the meeting where Director Miyazawa revealed the true nature of Yggdrasil and the plan he had conceived to defeat the Dragon. In order to improve the relationship between Yuu and Ren so that Ren could effectively transfer her dark matter to him for the sake of the plan, it was decided that Brynhildr Class would visit an amusement park the next day.

A large shield in the form of a crystalline snowflake. It was shown to be strong enough to block Babel Replicas blast with the help of multiple Ds.

Ariella initially held a neutral and somewhat harsh stance towards Yuu. However, she slowly started accepting him, especially after he showed his mettle during his fight with Hraesvelgr. After seeing the care he exhibited for Ren, Ariella started wanting to support him, and eventually developed feelings for him as she admitted to herself. However, because of her secret connection with NIFL, her feelings towards him were mixed, especially when she was marked by him as one of his mates. She also trusted him enough to take care of Ren when she was gone and was also shown feeling regret that she had to leave him behind in order to accomplish her objective. When they ced off against each other, after Yuu used Ether particles on her, it was revealed that Ariella wished for Yuu to stop her and change her into his mate. After the events of Volume , Ariella is shown to behave more shyly around Yuu.

AriellasFictional Armament, which takes the form of a green gauntlet wrapped around her right hand with a yellow gem at the back of the hand. Aegis has the ability to generate powerful barriers and shields, allowing Ariella to defend against most attacks with ease. She can also create multiple layers of her barriers for enhanced defense.

In Volume , following the wrecking of the Asgard lab, Ariella was invited to stay in Yuu and Mitsukis home alongside the rest of Brynhildr Class. Upon arriving, Ariella introduced herself to Yuus parents. The following day, after being informed of Yuus memory loss, Ariella expressed her anger at being kept out of the loop alongside Firill and bore witness to the restoration of Yuus memories. However, before everyone could properly rejoice,Black Vritramade a sudden appearance and asked to speak with Tear after assuming a human guise. After a brief discussion, it was decided that everyone would tourNanato Cityin order to jog Yuus memory, roping Vritra into coming along.

Ariella is shown to have incredible reflexes, being capable of avoiding gun shots at a close distance.

In Volume , after being informed of Mitsukis status as thes host, Ariella and the rest agreed to watch over her alongside Yuu. During her and Rens shift, Yuu woke up with Ariella explaining to him that Ren was sleeping on him because she required someone reassuring by her side in order to ll asleep. Their conversation then shifted to Kili and her behavior, with Ariella prompting Yuu to act in a more assertive manner towards her. However, she became greatly flustered when Yuu implied that Ariella was a masochist and found her reaction cute. Their conversation was interrupted by an urgent message from Charlotte, informing them of the appearance of unknown territories around the world and the emergence of the Fifth True Dragon, Eternal Longevity Bahamut. Following that announcement, Ariella joined the entirety of Midgards student body in lending their dark matter to Yuu in order to allow him to construct Marduk. After the completion of the battleship, Ariella boarded it alongside the rest of Brynhildr Class and Haruka in order to head to Bahamuts location.

is one of the main female characters in theseries. She is aD, Student No of Brynhildr Class and a member of theDragon Subjugation Squad.

GaiaVerdant KiskanuGold PhoenixSilver TiamatRed BasiliskPurple KrakenBlack VritraGreen YggdrasilYellow HraesvelgrWhite LeviathanGray VampireColorless FafnirHekatonkheirPurple Kraken Zwei

Ariella is naturally adept at using weapons such as daggers and knifes and is capable of deflecting bullets by throwing them. Shes also skilled at using a multitude of blades at once by transmuting and controlling the wind around her to unleash a barrage of attacks.

In Volume , Ariella was shown approaching Charlottes location through an underground passage along with Sleipnir by destroying the partitions that blocked their way, when she was contacted by MajorLoki Jotunheim. Although Loki assured her that the deal she had made with Captain Shelley would be upheld and wished for her to be victorious, Ariella snapped at him, calling him powerless and asking him not to disturb her while she was fighting before tossing away the communicator. While she was wondering if she acted that way towards Loki because he had exploited Yuu, Ariella was approached by a member of Sleipnir, who handed her another bloodfilled capsule, which sealed her consciousness and synchronized her mind with the rest of them. In that state, she encountered Yuu, Mitsuki, Ren, Iris, Tear and Kili, engaging them in combat, which ended when Yuu touched her, transforming her into his kind. Due to the ct that Yuu was using Ether Wind at the time, the two of them had a brief conversation inside her mindscape, where Ariella explained her reasons for wanting to kill Charlotte.

Ariella joined her classmates in travelling to thePrincipality of Erliain Volume in response toKili Surtr Muspelheims plea for help. During their sightseeing trip with Kili, Ariella struck up a conversation with Yuu and Firill, revealing that she had encountered Yellow Hraesvelgr before in her home country and had witnessed it materialize and consume the souls of those who had died in war, which was why she believed in the existence of souls. When both Yuu and Firill resolutely declared that they believed Ariellas words, she immediately got embarrassed and walked away. WhenJeanne Hortensiaattempted to retreat after iling to eliminate Kili, Ariella was the one who captured and restrained her. After Yuu set her free, Ariella scolded him for not informing everyone of his plan, before expressing her curiosity about Jeanne who had been crossdressing as a man and whether she was truly a man, apparently deducing her true gender.

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Villa AriellaJewish Genetics

Four Jewish mothers who lived , years ago in Europe are the ancestors of percent of all Ashkenazi Jews alive Friday, an international team of researchers reported Friday. The genetic study of DNA paints a vivid picture of human evolution and survival, and correlates with the welleslished written and oral histories of Jewish migrations, said Dr. Doron Behar of the TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology, who worked on the study. … For their study, Behar and geneticist Karl Skorecki, with collaborators in Finland, France, Estonia, Finland, Portugal, Russia and the United States sampled DNA from , people from populations. … I think there was some kind of genetic pool that was in the Near East, Behar said in a telephone interview. Among this genetic pool there were four maternal lineages, four real women, that carried the exact specific mitochondrial DNA markers that we can find in mitochondrial DNA today. They, or their direct descendants, moved into Europe. Then at a certain period, most probably in the th century, simply by demographic matters, they started to expand dramatically, Behar said. Maybe it was because of Jewish tradition, the structure of the mily that might have been characterized by a high number of children. But these four milies gave rise to much of the population of European Jews which exploded from , people in the th century to something like million just prior to World War II, Behar said. … Behar said as they sampled people from Ashkenazi communities around the world, the same mitochondrial genetic markers kept popping up. They did not find the markers in most of the nonJewish people they sampled, and only a very few were shared with Jews of other origin.

L. L. Field, J. A. Lowden, and A. K. Ray.Immunoglobulin Gm allos in a sample of Canadian Ashkenazic Jews.American Journal of Physical Anthropology February . This is an old study which may not be using current techniques. Abstract

Agence FrancePresse.Gene study settles debate over origin of European Jews.January , . Article about Elhaiks study.

Shai Carmi, Ethan Kochav, Ken Y. Hui, Xinmin Liu, James Xue, Fillan Grady, Saurav Guha, Kinnari Upadhyay, Semanti Mukherjee, B. Monica Bowen, Joseph Vijai, Ariel Darvasi, Kenneth Offit, Laurie J. Ozelius, Inga Peter, Judy H. Cho, Harry Ostrer, Gil Atzmon, Lorraine N. Clark, Todd Lencz, and Itsik Peer. The Ashkenazi Jewish Genome. A presented at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics ASHG in October , in Boston, Massachusetts. The researchers sequenced complete genomes from Ashkenazi Jews. From their results they estimate that about percent plus or minus percentage points of Ashkenazi ancestry derives from European peoples.

Ivan Oransky. Tracing Mideast Roots Back to Isaac and Ishmael Study of Y Chromosome Suggests a Common Ancestry for Jews and Arabs.The ForwardMay , . ExcerptsThe study also found the degree of intermarriage by the Askenazi Jewish population over the past years to be remarkably small. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by University of Arizona geneticist Michael Hammer and colleagues from Italy, Israel, England and America, refutes some earlier studies which suggested that modern Jews were mainly descendants of converts paticularly the Turkish Khazars with high rates of intermarriage…. The director of the human genetics program at the New York University School of Medicine and a coauthor of the , Harry Ostrer, toldThe Forwardthat… the story provides a useful allegory for the roots of Jews and Arabs. `Were the children of a discrete number of founders who lived in the Middle East, where these Y chromosomes originated and became concentrated., Dr. Ostrer said…. Dr. [Arno] Motulsky, who was not involved with the study, said that the results suggest that genes from nonJewish males have not entered the Jewish population to any great extent…. The study could raise important questions about who is a Jew. For example, the results suggest that Ethiopian Jews, thought to be long separated from other Jewish groups, may be more closely related to North African nonJews than to other Jews. Followup studies are already being planned. Dr. Ostrer is hoping to collect genetic information from Askenazi Jews to study migrational patterns across Europe. Dr. Hammer said he will study the DNA for mitrochondria… This will shed light onto the rate than which women intermarried into Jewish communities, since these genes are strictly passed by the mother.

Alla Katsnelson.Jews worldwide share genetic ties But analysis also reveals close links to Palestinians and Italians.June , . ExcerptsDifferent communities of Jews around the world share more than just religious or cultural practices they also have strong genetic commonalities, according to the largest genetic analysis of Jewish people to date. But the study also found strong genetic ties to nonJewish groups, with the closest genetic neighbours on the European side being Italians, and on the Middle Eastern side the Druze, Bedouin and Palestinians. Researchers in New York and Tel Aviv conducted a genomewide analysis on iniduals from seven welleslished Jewish communities around the world, hailing from Iran, Iraq, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Syria and eastern Europe. The team then compared these genetic profiles to those of nonJews in the same geographic regions based on data from the Human Genome Diversity Project…. The genetic ties identified in the present study… are consistent with the results of previous work, says Sarah Tishkoff, a human geneticist at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, but this is, I would say, the first study to put everything together into a big picture by looking at a large number of sites in the nuclear genome. The researchers analysed singleletter differences in the genome called single nucleotide polymorphisms, longer segments of DNA shared between different Jewish groups, as well as deleted or duplicated stretches of DNA called copynumber variants. Although the groups had strong genetic commonalities, the results also showed a varying degree of genetic mixing with nearby nonJewish populations. The most genetically distinct Jewish communities, compared both to other Jewish groups and to nearby nonJews, were those from Iran and Iraq. …one theory proposes that Ashkenazi Jews of eastern European origin are largely descended from Khazars in eastern Europe who converted to Judaism, but the genetic closeness between Ashkenazi Jews and other nonEuropean Jews does not support this idea. …Ostrer says… We really see the events of the Jewish diaspora in the genomes of Jewish people. … Ostrer says that the researchers are extending their analysis to more Jewish populations. They also hope to apply the findings to medical research…

David B. Goldstein.In Jewish Genetic History, the Known Unknowns.ForwardAugust , . Excerpts… We have learned that Jewish populations from around the world with a few exceptions have a remarkable degree of genetic connectedness with each other and with the Near East. … But many unknowns about Jewish history remain, leaving geneticists with an interest in Jewish origins with plenty of sleuthing work to do. … A recent study looking at hundreds of thousands of variable sites in the genome revealed a clear genetic signature for Jewish ancestry among randomly selected university students in America. When this Jewish signature was compared with the genetic makeup of other populations, it became clear that Ashkenazic Jews have a genetic makeup more similar to Near Eastern populations than do other Northern European populations. Yet despite sharing an origin point in the Near East, inidual Jews today tend to look markedly different from one another in terms of their physical appearance, depending upon which part of the world their ancestors resided in during recent centuries. Clearly, this ersity of physical appearance is the result of a degree of intermingling with the populations among which Jews have lived. But we dont know precisely when or how this intermingling took place. Did large numbers of gentiles join the Jewish population through mass conversion in the ancient world? Was there a steady trickle of intermarriage? Was there some combination of these? … One hint we do have is that research shows in multiple Jewish groups from Ashkenazic Jews to Georgian Jews more genetic continuity with Near Eastern populations on the paternal side indicated by the Y chromosome than on the maternal side indicated by mitochondrial DNA. … And findings by genetic researchers of significant Near Eastern ancestry among Ashkenazic Jews put to rest the notion that this population originated with or is predominantly descended from the Khazars. Be that as it may, there is one odd and tantalizing feature of Ashkenazic Jewish Y chromosomes that may lead us back toKhazaria. … There is no Y chromosome link that unites Ashkenazic and Sephardic Levites. Among the Ashkenazic Levites, however, there is a particularly common Y chromosome that is not often found in other Jewish groups. But it is found among people who now live where the Khazars once did. … One way to answer this question might be to try to develop a fuller picture of the genetics of the Turkicspeaking peoples, particularly modernday speakers of Chuvash, a Turkic language related to that spoken by the Khazars. Then we could compare their genes to the Ashkenazic genes we suspect may be of Khazar origin.

…about of the total Ashkenazi population ? are descended from just four women, a genetic study indicates. Those women apparently lived somewhere in Europe within the last , years, but not necessarily in the same place or even the same century, said lead author Dr. Doron Behar of the Rambam Medical Center in Hai, Israel. … Each woman left a genetic signature that shows up in their descendants today, he and colleagues say in a report published online by the American Journal of Human Genetics. Together, their four signatures appear in about of Ashkenazi Jews, while being virtually absent in nonJews and found only rarely in Jews of nonAshkenazi origin, the researchers said. Ashkenazi Jews are a group with mainly central and eastern European ancestry. Ultimately, though, they can be traced back to Jews who migrated from Israel to Italy in the first and second centuries, Behar said. Eventually this group moved to Eastern Europe in the th and th centuries and expanded greatly, reaching about million just before World War II, he said. The study involved mitochondrial DNA, called mtDNA, which is passed only through the mother. … Mike Hammer, who does similar research at the University of Arizona, said he found the work tracing back to just four ancestors quite plausible… I think theyve done a really good job of tackling this question. But he said its not clear the women lived in Europe. They may have existed in the Near East, Hammer said. We dont know exactly where the four women were, but their descendants left a legacy in the population today, whereas … other womens descendants did not. Behar said the four women he referred to did inherit their genetic signatures from female ancestors who lived in the Near East. But he said he preferred to focus on these later European descendants because they were at the root of the Ashkenazi population explosion.

Agence FrancePresse.Study confirms Jewish Middle East origins.Sydney Morning Herald, June , . ExcerptWe found evidence that Jewish communities originated in the Near East, said molecular scientist Doron Behar of the Rambam Health Care Campus in Hai, Israel, who led an investigation gathering experts in eight countries. Our genetic findings are concordant with historical records.

Doron M. Behar, Michael F. Hammer, Daniel Garrigan, Richard Villems, Batsheva BonneTamir, Martin B. Richards, David Gurwitz, Dror Rosengarten, Matthew Kaplan, Sergio Della Pergola, Lluis QuintanaMurci, and Karl Skorecki.MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population.European Journal of Human Genetics May . Advance online publication on January , . An observer who read the study indicates that the study shows that approximately percent of European Jewish maternal roots come from European sources, with the other percent from Middle Eastern or Asian roots.AbstractexcerptTo test for the effects of a maternal bottleneck on the Ashkenazi Jewish population, we performed an extensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA mtDNA hypervariable segment HVS sequence and restriction site polymorphisms in Ashkenazi Jews from different parts of Europe. These patterns of variation were compared with those of five Near Eastern n and host European n nonJewish populations. Only four mtDNA haplogroups Hgs defined on the basis of diagnostic coding region RFLPs and HVS sequence variants account for approximately of Ashkenazi mtDNA variation. While several Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA Hgs appear to derive from the Near East, there is alsoevidence for a low level of introgression from host European nonJewish populations.

Multiple studies have found that the lactasepersistence allele at theLCTlocus was selected for in Northern Europeans, with the selective sweep presumably occurring at the time of the domestication of cattle , to , y ago , . The absence of this allele in our data would suggest that the selective sweep was complete before the Ashkenazi eslishment in Europe. Moreover, the prevalence of lactase deficiency in Ashkenazi Jews has been estimated at to , further corroborating the lack of selection for theLCTlocus in the AJ population. Intriguingly, the AJ population has long been known to have lower levels of alcoholism than other groups , , with one study showing that Jewish males have a .fold lower lifetime rate of alcohol abuse/dependence compared with nonJews . Our results, together with a recent study showing that variation in theALDHpromoter affects alcohol absorption in Jews , now suggest that genetic ctors and selective pressure at theALDHlocus may have contributed to the low levels of alcoholism.

Aleza Goldsmith.Jews and Arabs share genes, Stanford research scientist says.Jewish Bulletin of Northern CaliforniaMarch , . ExcerptsPeter Underhill, a senior research scientist in the department of genetics at Stanford University, has a reality check for the Middle East No matter how you define yourself today whether Palestinian, Israeli, Syrian, Turkish Middle Easterners share much of the same gene pool. Based on research on the Y chromosome, published by Underhill and Stanford colleagues in a recent issue of Nature Genetics…. Underhill, along with Stanford colleagues and geneticists in the United States, Europe, Israel and Africa, have been working with the paternally transmitted Y chromosomes of more than , men from geographical areas….

The higher ersity in the AJ population was paralleled by a lower inbreeding coefficient, F, indicating the AJ population is more outbred than Europeans, not inbred, as has long been assumed P e Table . The greater genetic variation among the AJ population was further confirmed using a pairwise identitybystate IBS permutation test, which showed that average pairs of AJ iniduals have significantly less genomewide IBS sharing than pairs of EA or Euro iniduals empirical P value .. Thus, our results show that the AJ population is more genetically erse than Europeans. We also compared the genomewide haplo structure between the AJ and European populations using a haplo modeling algorithm , which models phased haplos as edges that pass through nodes at each SNP across the genome. The number of nodes in the model is correlated to the genetic variation, and the number of edges per node is inversely correlated to the haplo length. Using this model, we found that the AJ population has a greater number of nodes .. more but fewer edges per node .. fewer compared with the Europeans P e Table S, indicating both higher genetic variation and longer haplos in the AJ population, consistent with our previous results. We removed SNPs in high LD and measured the mean heterozygosity per locus across the combined Middle Eastern populations Bedouin, Palestinian, and Druze and found that the AJ population had higher heterozygosity . vs. ., P e. Other reports showing no increased heterozygosity in the AJ relative to Middle Eastern populations , were probably limited by lower AJ sample s, which our dataset overcomes. Thus, the increased genetic ersity and LD appear consistent withadmixturerather than founding effects. To evaluate admixture in the AJ population, we investigated the similarity between AJ and HP populations using PCA as well as a population clustering algorithm . Both analyses show thatAJ iniduals cluster between Middle Eastern and European populationsFig. AandBand Fig. SA, corroborating other recent reports , , , , . Interestingly, our population clustering reveals that the AJ population shows an admixture patternsubtly more similar to Europeans than Middle EasternersFig. AandC, Lower, while also verifying that the Ashkenazi Jews possess a unique genetic signature clearly distinguishing them from the other two regions Fig. C, Upper. The fixation index, FST, calculated concurrently to the PCA, confirms that there is acloser relationship between the AJ and several European populations Tuscans, Italians, and French than between the AJ and Middle Eastern populationsFig. SB.

Batsheva BonnTamir, S. Ashbel, and S. BarShani.Ethnic communities in Israel the genetic blood markers of the Moroccan Jews.American Journal of Physical Anthropology November . The authors state that different North African Jewish communities exhibit genetic differences and should not be lumped together into one group.

Robert Pollack.The Fallacy of Biological Judaism.ForwardMarch , OpEd section. ExcerptThough there are many deleterious versions of genes shared within the Ashkenazic community, there are no DNA sequences common to all Jews and absent from all nonJews. There is nothing in the human genome that makes or diagnoses a person as a Jew.

Steve Jones.In the Blood God, Genes, and Destiny. Flamingo, . ExcerptsAshkenazim are quite distinct from their Mediterranean and MiddleEastern coreligionistsin the incidence of the disease and in the mutations responsible… The genetic mily tree of Jews from different parts of Europe shows that they are not a unique group, biologically distinct from other peoples around them. There is, though, evidence of common ancestry that gives Jews at least a partial identity of their own. In most places, there is overlap between the genes of the Jewish population and those of local nonJews. There has been interchange; sometimes through recent marriage, but more often as a result of mating long ago….The Y chromosomes of Jews are unsurprisingly not all the same; the idea of the sons of Abraham is a symbolic one. They do show that many males, some only distantly related to each other, have contributed to the genes of European Jewry. On the average, most Jewish populations contain more ersity for male lineages than for female whose history is recorded in mitochondrial DNA. This means that there has been more invasion of the Jewish gene pool by the genes of nonJewish men than of women.The Y chromosomes of Jewish men from the Balkans are rather unlike those of other European Jews, perhaps because there was more admixture in this unsle part of the world.

Common Genetic Threads Link Thousands of Years of Jewish Ancestry.ScienceDailyJune , . ExcerptsThe genetic, cultural and religious traditions of contemporary Jewish people originated in the Middle East over three thousand years ago. Since that time, Jewish communities have migrated from the Middle East into Europe, North Africa and across the world. … This study shows that although Jewish people experienced genetic mixing with surrounding populations, they retained a genetic coherence along with a religious one. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations, says senior study author, Dr. Harry Ostrer… More recent studies of Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA have pointed to founder effects of both Middle Eastern and local origin, yet, the issue of how to characterize Jewish people as mere coreligionists or as genetic isolates that may be closely or loosely related remained unresolved. … Yet the genomes of the Jewish Diaspora groups have distinctive features that are representative of each groups genetic history. says Dr. Ostrer. Our study demonstrated that the studied Jewish populations represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters with genetic threads that weave them together, added Dr. Gil Atzmon… The researchers identified distinct Jewish population clusters that each exhibited a shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations and variable degrees of European and North African genetic intermingling. … The two major groups, Middle Eastern Jews and European Jews, were timed to have erged from each other approximately years ago. Southern European populations show the greatest proximity to Ashkenazi, Sephardic and Italian Jews, reflecting thelargescale southern European conversion and admixtureknown to have occurred over , years ago during the formation of the European Jewry. An apparent North African ancestry component was also observed as was present in the Sephardic groups potentially reflecting gene flow from Moorish to Jewish populations in Spain from to . … Dr. Ostrer noted, The study supports the idea of a Jewish people linked by a shared genetic history. Yet the admixture with European people explains why so many European and Syrian Jews have blue eyes and blonde hair.

andthis commentary about its mistake in using Armenians as a proxy for the gene pool of the Khazar Empire

Marc Perelman.Palestinian Gene Study Breeds Scandal.ForwardNovember , .

Alla Katsnelson.Genes link Jewish communities, take .Nature The Great BeyondJune , . Excerpt…the study showed that all of the Jewish communities share some common genetic features, and for the most part, the Jewish groups are more similar to each other than to the nonJews in the same regions. These two studies are the first pair of genomewide studies of SNP variations in collections of multiple Jewish populations, says Noah Rosenberg, a population geneticist at the University of Michigan who was not involved in either study. … Because of their large panel of populations, the researchers were able to e more deeply than ever before into fine scale relationships between different populations. The closest genetic clustering, both among Jewish and nonJewish groups, is seen in the eastern Mediterranean area known as the Levant, including Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and surrounding regions, the study finds.

Comment added Actually, data from a couple of new genetic s suggest that Ashkenazic Jews may in ct be majorityEuropean by ancestry.

According to Mark Jobling, Jews are the genetic brothers of Palestinians, Lebanese, and Syrians.

Nicholas Wade.Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora.The New York TimesMay , F col. . ExcerptsThe analysis provides genetic witness that these communities have, to a remarkable extent, retained their biological identity separate from their host populations, evidence of relatively little intermarriage or conversion into Judaism over the centuries…. The results accord with Jewish history and tradition and refute theories like those holding that Jewish communities consist mostly of converts from other iths, or that they are descended from the Khazars, a medieval Turkish tribe that adopted Judaism…. But presentday Ethiopian Jews lack some of the other lineages found in Jewish communities, and overall are more like nonJewish Ethiopians than other Jewish populations, at least in terms of their Y chromosome lineage pattern…. Roman Jews have a pattern quite similar to that of Ashkenazis, the Jewish community of Eastern Europe. Dr. Hammer said the finding accorded with the hypothesis that Roman Jews were the ancestors of the Ashkenazis. Despite the Ashkenazi Jews long residence in Europe, their Y signature has remained distinct from that of nonJewish Europeans.

Razib Khan.Genetics and the Jews its still complicated.Discover Magazine Gene ExpressionJune , . ExcerptsAshkenazi Jews are roughly between European and Middle Eastern populations, as one would expect if they were in some sense an admixture between the groups. … This seems to confirm the eastwest ision evident in the earlier [by Ostrer et al.], whereby Ashkenazi Sephardic groups form a natural cluster, as do the Mizrahi Jews of Iraq and Iran. … The Yemeni Jews… seem to shake out as just another Middle Eastern population. Theyre a subset of the Saudis in both plots. … From this figure it looks as if the Moroccan Jews are fundamentally distinctive in some way from the nonJewish population of Morocco. … What likely occurred in India was that generations of admixture between Jews and nonJews resulted in the elision of differences between the two groups, despite the persistence of a cultural distinction. … NonJews could, and did, move into the Indian Jewish community, while this was oo in the Islamic or Christian world.

Nicholas Wade.Studies Show Jews Genetic Similarity.The New York TimesJune , A. ExcerptsJewish communities in Europe and the Middle East share many genes inherited from the ancestral Jewish population that lived in the Middle East some , years ago, even though each community also carries genes from other sources… Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews have roughly percent European ancestry, with most of the rest from the Middle East, the two surveys find. The two communities seem very similar to each other genetically… One explanation is that they come from the same Jewish source population in Europe. The AtzmonOstrer team found that the genomic signature of Ashkenazim and Sephardim was very similar to that of Italian Jews, suggesting that an ancient population in northern Italy of Jews intermarried with Italians could have been the common origin. The Ashkenazim first appear in Northern Europe around A.D. , but historians suspect that they arrived there from Italy. … The genetics confirms a trend noticed by historians that there was more contact between Ashkenazim and Sephardim than suspected, with Italy as the linchpin of interchange, said Aron Rodrigue, a Stanford University historian. A common surname among Italian Jews is Morpurgo, meaning someone from Marburg in Germany. Also, Dr. Rodrigue said, one of the most common names among the Sephardim who settled in the Ottoman Empire is Eskenazi, indicating that many Ashkenazim had joined the Sephardic community there. The two genetic surveys indicate that there may be common origins shared by the two groups, but also that there were extensive contacts and settlements, Dr. Rodrigue said.

Jews and Arabs are genetic brothers.BBC NewsMay , . Excerpts…The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that Jewish men shared a common set of genetic signatures with nonJews from the Middle East, including Palestinians, Syrians, and Lebanese. These signatures were significantly different from nonJewish men outside of the Middle East. This means Jews and Arabs have more in common with each other, genetically speaking, than they do with any of the wider communities in which they might live. Dr Mark Jobling of Leicester University, UK, one of the authors of the new study, told the BBC The kind of DNA we have used to analyse this question is the human Y chromosome. This represents only of our genetic material and it is passed down from ther to son… The ct that we dont see it [signals of genetic mixture between Jews and nonJews] suggests that after the Diaspora these populations really have managed to maintain their Jewish heritage.

Martin B. Richards.Beware the gene genies.The GuardianFebruary , . Excerpts

Andrea Anderson.Study Points to Shared Genetic Patterns amongst Jewish Populations.GenomeWeb NewsJune , . ExcerptsThe research, scheduled to appear online today in the American Journal of Human Genetics, suggests all Jewish populations tested ll into a large genetic cluster that contains populationspecific subgroups with different levels of Middle Eastern ancestry and European and North African admixture. Its really cool that Jews have maintained this degree of genetic coherence over time, senior author Harry Ostrer, a human genetics researcher with the New York University School of Medicine, told GenomeWeb Daily News. Within this larger Jewish group, the team found two main subgroups one representing Jewish populations in Europe and Syria and another containing Jewish populations from Iran and Iraq. …studies of most Jewish populations have relied on relatively limited Ychromosome or mitochondrial DNA sequence data. For the current study, researchers used the Affymetrix . microarray platform to geno Jewish participants… These iniduals came from one of seven major Jewish groups, representing Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardic Jews from Italy, Greece, and Turkey, and Mizrahi Jews from Iran, Iraq, and Syria. After quality control steps, the team was left with data for Jewish iniduals, which they compared with hundreds of nonJewish samples from the Human Genome Diversity Project… In particular, Ostrer said, the researchers were surprised to see such a high level of genetic relatedness in European Jewry, with Ashkenazi, Sephardic, Italian, and Syrian Jews clustering more closely to one another than to Jewish populations in Iran and Iraq. The results argue against the notion that Ashkenazi Jews are descendants of Eastern European groups such as the Slavs or Khazars, Ostrer noted. Theres just no evidence for that. Instead, Ashkenazi Jews seem to be more genetically similar to nonJewish populations in Northern Italy, France, and Sardinia. Meanwhile, Jewish populations in Iran and Iraq tended to cluster closer to nonJewish Palestinian, Druze, and Bedouin populations than to Europeans. … Down the road, the team intends to geno additional populations…

Marc Haber, Dominique Gauguier, Sonia Youhanna, Nick Patterson, Priya Moorjani, Laura R. Botigu, Daniel E. Platt, Elizabeth MatisooSmith, David F. SoriaHernanz, R. Spencer Wells, Jaume Bertranpetit, Chris TylerSmith, David Comas, and Pierre A. Zalloua.GenomeWide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture.PLoS Genetics February , e. Participants in this study about the Levant region of West Asia included Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Palestinians, Lebanese Christians, Lebanese Druze, Lebanese Muslims, Syrians, Jordanians, Bedouins, Cypriots, Armenians, Saudis, Yemenis, Iranians, and multiple European, East/South/Central Asian, and African populations. Ashkenazi Jews and Sephardi Jews were found to be closely related to each other and more closely related to Lebanese than Palestinians are. Excerpts The population tree Figure A splits Levantine populations in two branches one leading to Europeans and Central Asians that includes Lebanese, Armenians, Cypriots, Druze and Jews, as well as Turks, Iranians and Caucasian populations; and a second branch composed of Palestinians, Jordanians, Syrians, as well as North Africans, Ethiopians, Saudis, and Bedouins. The tree shows a correlation between religion and the population structures in the Levant all Jews Sephardi and Ashkenazi cluster in one branch; Druze from Mount Lebanon and Druze from Mount Carmel are depicted on a private branch; and Lebanese Christians form a private branch with the Christian populations of Armenia and Cyprus placing the Lebanese Muslims as an outer group. The predominantly Muslim populations of Syrians, Palestinians and Jordanians cluster on branches with other Muslim populations as distant as Morocco and Yemen. [Also,] an MDS Figure and a normalized principle component analysis PCA Figure S plots were built. The plots reveal a Levantine structure not reported previously Lebanese Christians and all Druze cluster together, and Lebanese Muslims are extended towards Syrians, Palestinians, and Jordanians, which are close to Saudis and Bedouins.Ashkenazi Jews are drawn towards the Caucasus and Eastern Europe, reflecting historical admixture events with Europeans, while Sephardi Jews cluster tightly with the Levantine groups. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting higher European genomewide admixture in Ashkenazi Jews compared with other Jews

Mayrav Saar.Genetic testing raises an ageold question are the Jews a people, or a religion?New York PostJune , . ExcerptsThe debate is over, said Dr. Edward R. Burns, one of the lead authors of the study. The Jewish people are one people with a common genetic thread that evolved in the second or third century BC. The study, Abrahams Children in the Genome Era, compared the genetic analyses of Jews, including Sephardic Middle Eastern and Ashkenazi Eastern European Jews as well as an analysis of nonJews worldwide, and found that the Jews were more closely related to each other than to their fellow countrymen. Past studies have reached similar conclusions, but they looked at smaller populations and considered only blood groups, mitochondrial DNA a of DNA passed down by mothers or Y chromosomes passed down by thers. … The study and a second genetic study published Friday in the journal Nature scientifically undermines arguments made by those who challenge Jews historical relationship to Israel… It seems that most Jewish populations, and therefore most Jewish iniduals, are closer to each other [at the genetic level], and closer to the Middle Eastern populations, than to their traditional host population in the Diaspora, Israeli geneticist Doron Behar, author of the Nature study, told the BBC. … That the new data also seemed to follow the Jews historical and Biblical narrative was particularly exciting to Burns, who is Jewish. I, along with my coauthors, went to these different populations, Iraqis, Iranians, etc. We talked to these people, and they had a certain hopefulness that the genetic analysis would eslish for them a of universal Jewish pride, he said. My own personal feeling is that among Jews differences in culture and geography become meaningless because were all sisters and brothers. … My sisterinlaw is Filipino. She practices Judaism which is more than I do but I cant call her a fellow Jew in that same sense, said Sandy Malek, president of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Los Angeles… There is a peoplehood for Jewish people that is separate from the religion. … While the new research says much about Jews, it doesnt have any bearing on Judaism, said David Wolpe, the rabbi, who explained that he is not moved by the effort to scientifically link and define Jews. … Spiritually this is a pleasant and welcome reinforcement of what I already knew, but the bottom line is Torah trumps genome, said David Wolpe, the rabbi. … The analysis by Burns and his colleagues provides the first detailed genetic map of the major Jewish groups, information that can be used as a kind of dictionary to study the genetic origins of commonly acquired diseases such as cancer and heart disease. This information can benefit not only Jews, but the population as a whole, as researchers use the data better understand possible genetic components of diseases, researchers said. The study could also yield valuable information for a host of conditions already thought to have a genetic component, from nearsightedness to breast cancer just dont call any of those diseases Jewish. Even the host of ailments that are considered Jewish genetic diseases, including TaySachs Disease and Blooms Disease, occur in the general population, said Paul Wolpe, the bioethicist, who is also on the board of the Victor Centers for Jewish Genetic Diseases.

Anna C. Need, Dalia Kasperaviiute, Elizabeth T. Cirulli, and David B. Goldstein.A genomewide genetic signature of Jewish ancestry perfectly separates iniduals with and without full Jewish ancestry in a large random sample of European Americans.Genome Biology R electronically published on January , . ExcerptsWe also included Palestinian n , Druze n and Bedouin n samples as groups that might be similar to ancestral Jewish source populations []. We found that the Middle Eastern populations clustered separately from the European and EuropeanAmerican populations, as expected, and the subjects with four Jewish grandparents clustered close to but separate from the Adygei and lay between the Middle Eastern and the European and EuropeanAmerican populations Figure . This is an important finding for a number of reasons. Firstly, the Jewish subjects remain in a separate cluster when mixed with both European and Middle Eastern populations…Secondly, the Jewish cluster lies approximately midway between the European and the Middle Eastern clusters, implying that the Ashkenazi Jews may contain mixed ancestry from these two regions.This is consistent with the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA genetic evidence that has been interpreted by some to suggest a stronger paternal genetic heritage of Jewish populations from the Middle East and stronger maternal genetic heritage from the host populations of the Diaspora []. Finally, theproximity of the Jewish cluster to the Adygeiis of interest, but the small sample of the Adygei and sparse availability of Central Asian populations makes interpretation of this proximity difficult.

Steve Sailer.QA Tracing Jewish history through genes.UPI, May , . Published in that days edition ofThe Washington Times. ExcerptsFrom a historical perspective, however, this current era of Jews marrying gentiles is not unique, according to author Jon Entine. While other peoples have come and gone over the millennia, the world Jewish community has survived both through eras of horrific persecution and eras of high rates of intermarriage. … Entine said Biblical literalists have long contended that Jews are a race apart, citing Deuteronomic Law You shall not intermarry with them nonJews. As a result, some Jewish populations, such as the Ashkenazi from Eastern Europe, are among the more genetically distinct in the world… Under the Roman Empire, the Jewish community in Italy was quite sizable for a time, with lots of flow in and out. During the early Christian period in the Roman Empire, Jewish males who had left the Mideast often took on Gentile wives. Their offspring probably became the core of Ashkenazi Jewry. However, some time around the ll of Rome is when the oos on intermarriage imposed by both Jews and Gentiles became stringent. The real end to Ashkenazi Jewish outmarrying did not come until the Middle Ages as the economic and social position of Jews worsened considerably. This historical trend is reflected in the genetic data, which suggests that the genetic core of modern Ashkenazi Jewry was not formed until this period. The core consisted mostly of Jewish men with Middle Eastern roots marrying a high percentage of local Gentile women, then forming Jewish communities.

Diamond argues that Ashkenazic Jews are connected to their ancient Arab and Egyptian neighbors. p. . Yet he admits Although the Jews have been scattered for only a few thousand years, their ces often reflect their scattered homelands. p. . Diamonds explanations are somewhat bizarre. While he is willing to consider Indian Jews, Yemenite Jews, and Ethiopian Jews descendants of converts and mixed marriages p. , he seems to think Ashkenazic Jews are more purely Israelite than other Jewish groups. He suggests that natural selection, rather than intermarriage and conversion, explains how Jews resemble their nonJewish neighbors p. . In other words, Jews move to Europe, speed up the process of evolution that usually is slower among other human groups, and somehow magically start to look like Russians, Poles, Italians, and Germans, without any genetic contact with them. Skin and ABO blood group studies contradict the notion that Jews are all homogeneous Middle Easterners Diamond p. , and GPD deficiency genetics is common to Ashkenazim, Russians, and Germans p. . But Diamond keeps insisting that this was not due to mixing. In their fingerprints, Rhesus blood group frequencies, haptoglobins, and several enzyme markers, Ashkenazic Jews resemble Sephardic and Yemenite Jews and differ from Eastern European Gentiles. Furthermore, in these respects Jews resemble many Gentile peoples of the eastern Mediterranean, such as Samaritans, Armenians, Egyptian Cops, and Syrian, Lebanese, and Palestinian Arabs. p. Thus, judging by neutral markers, the nonJewish contribution to the Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jewish gene pool has been low. These groups of Jews may really be transplanted Semites, not converted Khazars or products of massive intermarriage. p. . But this does nothing to explain the magical way in which Jews come to resemble their neighbors. It is as if a Dutchman moving to South Africa would have descendants who would at least be beginning to look more like native Africans, or descendants of the Mayflower starting to adopt American Indian cial characteristics, or Englishmen in Australia turning Aboriginal. Are such things happening absent intermarriage? Obviously not. And how and why would a minority group drastically change its physical appearance e.g. lightening skin in order to blend in with the majority? Diamond the intermarriagedenier thinks Jews thus provide a striking example of rapid, recent evolution. Is this idle speculation? His article contains the typical Koestlerbashing, which shows that one of his intentions was to use genetics research to disprove any sort of connection between Khazars and Russian Jews. While he provided a valuable service in summarizing some scientific studies for the general public, his overall explanation is not credible. In his bookGuns, Germs, and Steelhe indicated that he believes that geography determined historical patterns much more than human action. UPDATE In December it was revealed in a study by Keith C. Cheng that the light skin of Europeans particularly in northern Europe, a genetic suppression of the production of melanin, probably originated at one time, after the geographical separation of Africans and others. Most Africans and most Asians do not share this suppressing gene. Thus, the claim is debunked that European Jews underwent a separate ! process of lightening their skin within a short amount of time !!, absent intermarriage !!!, a process which its proponents do not pretend to claim happened to other Jewish groups. In reality, European physical traits came from a certain degree of intermarriage with Europeans. Deal with reality, folks. They dont just happen. There is no separate gene that brought about the same lightening process in Ashkenazic Jews. I do not believe Ashkenazic Jews are primarily Europeans, but by the same token we cannot deny that there was some substantial intermarriage with Europeans among Ashkenazim.

Gm typing on the serum specimens of Ashkenazic Jews predominantly of PolishRussian ancestry from Toronto, Canada has eslished the presence of haplos Gm;, Gm;, Gm,;, and Gm,;, and the absence of haplos Gm;,,, Gm;,, and Gm;,, which have been found in other Jewish peoples. It is suggested that Ashkenazic populations have lower frequencies of haplo Gm,; than nonEuropean Jewish populations, and that some eastern European Jewish populations have acquired the Gm;,, haplo through gene flow from Central Asia. Thus Jewish populations show differences in the Gm system; many of the differences may be in the direction of similarities to neighbouring nonJewish populations.

Also seethis commentary against Elhaiks studys consideration of Armenians as a fundamentally Caucasusbased people

Harlette Lacau, Tenzin Gayden, Maria Regueiro, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Areej Bukhari, Peter A. Underhill, Ralph L. GarciaBertrand, and Rene J. Herrera.Afghanistan from a Ychromosome perspective.European Journal of Human Genetics. Forthcoming in print. First published online on April , . An analysis of the Ychromosomes of Pathan males from Afghanistan. Excerpts from the AbstractCentral Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup Raa*M and the sharing of the same modal haplo. Furthermore, the high frequencies of RaaM and the presence of GcM chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals fromKhazars, a common link between Pathans andAshkenazigroups,

Nicholas DNA, New Clues to Jewish Roots.The New York TimesMay , F col. . ExcerptsThe emerging genetic picture is based largely on two studies, one published two years ago and the other this month, that together show that the men and women who founded the Jewish communities had surprisingly different genetic histories…. A new study now shows that the women in nine Jewish communities from Georgia, the former Soviet republic, to Morocco have vastly different genetic histories from the men…. Thewomensidentities, however, are a mystery, because, unlike the case with the men, their genetic signatures arenot relatedto one another orto those of presentday Middle Eastern populations…. The new study, by Dr. David Goldstein, Dr. Mark Thomas and Dr. Neil Bradman of University College in London and other colleagues, appears in The American Journal of Human Genetics this month…. His [Goldsteins] own speculation, he said, is that most Jewish communities were formed by unions between Jewish men and local women, though he notes that the womens origins cannot be genetically determined…. Like the other Jewish communities in the study, the Ashkenazic community of Northern and Central Europe, from which most American Jews are descended, shows less ersity than expected in its mitochondrial DNA, perhaps reflecting the maternal definition of Jewishness. But unlike the other Jewish populations, it does not show signs of having had very few female founders. It is possible, Dr. Goldstein said, that the Ashkenazic community is a mosaic of separate populations formed the same way as the others…. The authors are correct in saying the historical origins of most Jewish communities are unknown, Dr. [Shaye] Cohen [of Harvard University] said. Not only the little ones like in India, but even the mainstream Ashkenazic culture from which most American Jews descend….. If the founding mothers of most Jewish communities were local, that could explain why Jews in each country tend to resemble their host community physically while the origins of their Jewish founding thers may explain the aspects the communities have in common, Dr. Cohen said…. The Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNAs in todays Jewish communities reflect the ancestry of their male and female founders but say little about the rest of the genome… Noting that the Y chromosome points to a Middle Eastern origin of Jewish communities and the mitochondrial DNA to a possibly local origin, Dr. Goldstein said that the composition of ordinary chromosomes, which carry most of the genes, was impossible to assess. My guess, Dr. Goldstein said, is that the rest of the genome will be a mixture of both.

The Jewish World This Week in Israel.Global Jewish AgendaJewish Agency for Israel, November , . ExcerptsA new study by the Hebrew University in Jerusalem reveals the Kurds are the people closest to the Jews genetically. Scientists who carried out the study, including Prof. Ariella Friedman [sic Oppenheim] and Dr. Marina Fireman [sic Faerman], say that according to the findings, the Jews and the Kurds share common ancient forethers, who lived in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent a part of contemporary Iraq and Syria. Some moved southward in prehistoric times and settled along the eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean. The researchers say that they were surprised to find that the Jews were closer genetically to the Kurds and to the Turks than to their Arab neighbors. The findings of the study, which for the first time included a comparison between DNA samples from Jews and DNA samples from Muslim Kurds, also surprised historians such as Prof. Bezalel BarKochba of TelAviv University and Dr. Gunner Lehman of BenGurion University in the Negev, who said `It is difficult to explain the findings within the con of the knowledge we have about material and historic culture.

Eran Elhaik.The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses.Genome Biology and Evolution . Finalized article first published online by on December , . Excerpts from the Abstract We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian Hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry. We further describe major difference among Caucasus populations explained by early presence of Judeans in the Southern and Central Caucasus.

Martin B. Richards.New information is discovered about the ancestry of Ashkenazi Jews.Press release released October , . Excerpts Ychromosome studies have shown that the male line of [Ashkenazi] descent does indeed seem to trace back to the Middle East. But the female line, which can be illuminated by studies of mitochondrial DNA has until now proved more difficult to interpret. We have settled this issue by looking at large numbers of whole mitochondrial genomes sequencing the full , bases of the molecule in many people from across Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. We have found that, in the vast majority of cases, Ashkenazi lineages are most closely related to southern and western European lineages and that these lineages have been present in Europe for many thousands of years. This means that, even though Jewish men may indeed have migrated into Europe from Palestine around years ago, they brought few or no wives with them. They seem to have married with European women, firstly along the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, and later but probably to a lesser extent in western and central Europe. This suggests that, in the early years of the Diaspora, Judaism took in many converts from amongst the European population, but they were mainly recruited from amongst women.

Alkes L. Price, Johannah Butler, Nick Patterson, Cristian Capelli, Vincenzo L. Pascali, Francesca Scarnicci, Andres RuizLinares, Leif Groop, Angelica A. Saetta, Penelope Korkolopoulou, Uri Seligsohn, Alicja Waliszewska, Christine Schirmer, Kristin Ardlie, Alexis Ramos, James Nemesh, Lori Arbeitman, David B. Goldstein, David E. Reich, and Joel N. Hirschhorn.Discerning the Ancestry of European Americans in Genetic Association Studies.Public Library of Science Genetics PLoS GeneticsJanuary . Sampled Southern Italians Sicilians as well as those on the mainland, and other Europeans , iniduals in all. ExcerptsImportant work has already shown that northwest and southeast Europeans can be distinguished using as few as , ancestryinformative markers mined from datasets of ,, markers. Here we mine much larger datasets more markers and more samples to identify a panel of highly ancestryinformative markers which accurately distinguish not just northwest and southeast European, but also Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Our results are consistent with a previous study in which Ashkenazi Jewish and southeast European samples occupied similar positions on the northwestsoutheast axis, although there was insufficient data in that study to separate these two populations[]. A historical interpretation of this finding is that both Ashkenazi Jewish and southeast European ancestries are derived from migrations/expansions from the Middle East and subsequent admixture with existing European populations [,].

Jesse Emspak.Oy Vey! European Jews Are All th Cousins, Study Finds.LiveScienceSeptember , . Excerpts The findings bolster the mainstream view that the ancestors of European Jews were people from the Levant and local Europeans. An earlier, thcentury theory posited that the core of the Ashkenazi Jewish population is descended from Khazars, from the Russian steppes, but the genetic evidence makes that even less likely, said study researcher Itsik Peer, [Among Ashkenazi Jews] everyone is a th cousin, Peer said. They have a stretch of the genome that is identical.

Grard Lucotte and Pierre Smets.Origins of Falasha Jews studied by haplos of the Y chromosome.Human Biology December . mirror AbstractDNA samples from Falasha Jews and Ethiopians were studied with the Ychromosomespecific DNA probe pa to screen for TaqI restriction polymorphisms and haplos. Two haplos V and XI are the most widespread in Falashas and Ethiopians, representing about of the total number of haplos in Ethiopia. Because the Jewish haplos VII and VIII are not represented in the Falasha population, we conclude that the Falasha people descended from ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia who converted to Judaism.

…four Jewish founding mothers who lived in Europe , years ago have been credited with being the ancestors of nearly half of all Ashkenazi Jews… … percent of Ashkenazi Jews currently alive are descended from these matriarchs, who were among a small group, probably after migrating from the Middle East, according to the Israeli researchers, who also provide evidence of shared maternal ancestry between Ashkenazi and nonAshkenazi Sephardi and Oriental Jews. The studies that led to these findings were performed by Dr. Doron Behar as part of his doctoral thesis, and were done under the supervision of Prof. Karl Skorecki of the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute at the TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology and at the Rambam Medical Center in Hai. … Researchers from universities in Italy, Estonia, Portugal, France, the US and Russia contributed to the important study, which was published online by the prestigious American Journal of Human Genetics on Thursday and will appear in print in the March. … The researchers conclusions are based on detailed comparative analysis of DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA mtDNA region of the human genome. … NonAshkenazi Jews also carry low frequencies of these distinct mtDNA s, thus providing evidence of shared maternal ancestry of Ashkenazi and nonAshkenazi Jews. This is consistent with previous findings based on studies of the Ychromosome, pointing to a similar pattern of shared paternal ancestry of global Jewish populations, originating in the Middle East. The researchers concluded that the four founding mtDNA likely of Middle Eastern origin underwent a major overall expansion in Europe during the last millennium.

Elhaiks article was accompanied by a commentary with interviews by Danielle Venton published inGenome Biology and Evolution on s Highlight Out of KhazariaEvidence for Jewish Genome Lacking.

Donald Macintyre.. million Ashkenazi Jews traced to four female ancestors.The IndependentJanuary , .

Hillel Halkin.Wandering Jews and Their Genes.Commentary September . ExcerptsFinally, published in last JunesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencewere the results of a study conducted by an international team of scientists led by Michael Hammer of the University of Arizona and Batsheva BonnTamir of Tel Aviv University… Based on genetic samples from , males… its main conclusions are . With the exception of Ethiopian Jews, all Jewish samples show a high genetic correlation… . In descending order after these Middle Easterners, Ashkenazi Jews correlate best with Greeks and Turks; then with Italians; then with Spaniards; then with Germans; then with Austrians; and least of all with Russians… And on the other hand again whereas the traditional explanation of East European Jewish origins was that most Ashkenazi Jews reached Poland and Russia from… the Rhineland; Rhineland from northern France… this version has come under increasing challenge in recent years on both demographic and linguistic grounds. Most Jews, the challengers maintain, must have arrived in Eastern Europe not from the west and southwest but from the south and east that is, via northern Italy and the Balkans; Asia Minor and the Greek Byzantine empire; the Volga kingdom of the Khazars…; or a combination of all three. Now comes theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencereport, which appears to bear out the newer version of events. Ashkenazi Jews, it informs us, have a more significant admixture of Italian, Greek, and Turkish genes than of Spanish, German, or even Austrian ones. Of course, things are not so . Even without questioning the studys highly technical procedures, different interpretations could be put on them. It could be argued, for example, that the resemblance of Jewish to Greek and Italian Y chromosomes is traceable to proselytization in the Mediterranean world during the period of the Roman Empire… What must also be remembered is that Y chromosomes tell us only about males. But we know that in most societies, women are more likely to convert to their husbands religion than viceversa… If true, this might also explain a number of differences between the Hammer/BonnTamir study and earlier research on the geographical distribution of specific Jewish diseases, blood s, enzymes, and mitochondrial DNA… a predominance of female converts might provide the answer. It might also explain opposed findings on Jews from Yemen, who in earlier tests matched poorly with other Jews. This particular result was understood to support the theory that Yemenite Jewry originated in the widespread conversion of nonJews under the Himyarite kings of southern Arabia in the first centuries of the Common Era. But now the Hammer/BonnTamir report shows that the Y chromosomes of Yemenite Jews have typically Jewish haplos. The contradiction could be resolved by positing that Jewish men… reached Yemen… married local women…Multiple letters in response to Hillel Halkins article were published in Commentarys December issue.

Carole Oddoux, Encarnacion GuillenNavarro, C. M. Clayton, H. Nelson, H. Peretz, U. Seligsohn, L. Luzzatto, M. Nardi, M. Karpatkin, C. DiTivoli, E. DiCave, Felicia Axelrod, and Harry Ostrer. Genetic Evidence for a Common Origin among Roman Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.American Journal of Human Genetics A. Abstract excerptsThe present Ashkenazi Jewish population is believed to be derived from an initial group of , founders who moved to Eastern Europe years ago, possibly from Rome. In order to test the hypothesis that these two populations originated from a common founder population we collected samples from a group of Roman Jews representing unique chromosomes and analyzed them for specific mutations known to be prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews…. The FXI III mutation has previously been observed exclusively among Ashkenazi Jewish populations suggesting a common origin for the Roman and the Ashkenazi Jews and dating the mutation to between , and , years ago.

Genetic Road May Lead to Rome Scientists Discover Ties Between Ashkenazim and Roman Jews.ForwardAugust , v. C, p. .

To say that Jews are somehow homogeneous across the entire diaspora is completely llacious, says Ken Jacobs of the University of Montreal. There is so much incredible genetic heterogeneity within the Jewish community any Jewish community. Jewish people simply dont exhibit the genetic homogeneity that [Kevin] MacDonald ascribes to them, Jacobs says. According to an Jacobs views as summarized in an article in theNew Times Los Angeles OnlineApril , , Witness For The Persecution by Tony Ortega The only Jewish subgroup that does show some homogeneity descendants of the Cohanim, or priestly class makes up only about percent of the Jewish population.Even within the Cohanim, and certainly within the rest of the Jewish people, theres a vast amount of genetic variationthat simply contradicts MacDonalds most basic assertion that Jewish genetic sameness is a sign that Judaism is an evolutionary group strategy. In HANTISEMITISM, Ken Jacobs added Hammers Jewish samples are heavily skewed towards the Kohanim… This is bound to reduce withinpopulation variance in the Jewish sample… I pointed out solely that the data reported for the Jewish samples in the recent PNAS were remarkably similar to those published previously in studies of which Hammer was a coauthor, the focus of which was the Kohanim… There is an ahistorical aspect to this work, as well as a serious conflation of genes, ethnicity, and religious belief. For example, as used in Hammers study, the distinction between Syrian and Palestinian is based on irly recent geopolitical constructs that have little or no bearing on the patterns of gene flow in the region prior to CE…. In the original Lemba study, the complex of Ychromosome genes was found in of Kohanim among Ashkenazim, the percentage was of Kohanim among the Sepharad, and among the Buba clan of the Lemba. Among nonKohanim the average Jewish for this gene complex is less than . One does not have to understand the lingo to see that there was inbreeding in one part of the dispersed Jewish communities and a certain level of outbreeding in the rest.

Stenia Bertoncini, Kazima Bulayeva, Gianmarco Ferri, Luca Pagani, Laura Caciagli, Luca Taglioli, Igor Semyonov, Oleg Bulayev, Giorgio Paoli, and Sergio Tonelli.The Dual Origin of TatiSpeakers from Dagestan as Written in the Genealogy of Uniparental Variants.American Journal of Human Biology July/August s . First published online on January , . They genetically tested the YDNA and mtDNA of two Tatspeaking peoples who live in Daghestan in southern Russia the Mountain Jews also called Juhurim and Muslim Tats. The two communities speak different dialects of the Tat language. The genetics of the Jewish and Muslim Tat speakers were found to be quite different, with the authors saying that they do not reflect a common ancestry. The Mountain Jews were shown to be a group with tight matrilineal genetic legacy who separated early from other Jewish communities. In the section Analysis of paternal lineages, the authors indicate that the dominant YDNA haplogroup in Mountain Jews is GM M, P, and M, representing . of their total paternal lineages. The Mountain Jews branch of G doesnt match the G sublineages of two major Caucasian linguistic domains nor does their branch cluster with the G STR YDNA haplos of Ashkenazim that were reported in Behar et al. and Hammer et al. . The researchers were surprised that the Mountain Jews kinds of G can be separated into at least two ergent clades lling many mutational steps away from any G haplo ever published before One of these clades is defined by a very peculiar incomplete allele, DYS*., most likely the results of a deletion external to the repeat units. They also make this observation In the MJ [Mountain Jews], the highest level of haplo sharing lowest DHS values at the ninelocus level of analysis was observed with autochthonous groups from Dagestan Tabasarans, Kubachians, and Laks and the Jews from Afghanistan. The YDNA haplogroup that Mountain Jews share with Tabasarans, called J*M, isnt the same haplogroup thats shared between Muslim Tats and Tabarasans; the two lineages are not even close.

A. Amar, O. J. Kwon, U. Motro, C. S. Witt, Batsheva BonnTamir, R. Gabison, and Chaim Brautbar. Molecular analysis of HLA class II polymorphisms among different ethnic groups in Israel.Human Immunology August . This study iled to study Slavic populations, yet the study apparently showed that Israeli Arabs are closer to Sephardic Jews than either group is to Ashkenazi Jews. ExcerptsGenetic studies classify the Israeli Jewish population into two major groups Ashkenazi from Central and Eastern Europe and Sephardic or non Ashkenazi, from the Mediterranean and North Africa… Ethiopian Jews were found to be closer to the Blacks than to any of the Israeli Jewish groups. We have shown that Jews share common features, a ct that points to a common ancestry. A certain degree of admixture with their preimmigration neighbors exists despite the cultural and religious constraints against intermarriage.

Karen Kaplan.DNA ties Ashkenazi Jews to group of just people from Middle Ages.Los Angeles TimesSeptember , . Excerpts An international team of scientists sequenced the complete genomes of healthy Ashkenazi Jews and compared each of those sequences with the others, as well as with with the DNA of Flemish people from Belgium. Despite their close ties with Europe, no more than half of their DNA comes from ancient Europeans, the researchers found. Only to of the DNA in the samples originated with the group of people who were also the ancestors of the Flemish people in the study. Those ancient people split off from the ancestors of todays Middle Easterners more than , years ago, with a founding group of about , to , people, according to the study. The rest of the Ashkenazi genome comes from the Middle East, the researchers reported.

Maggie Fox.Middle Eastern Roots Shared Y Chromosome Illustrates Genetic Map of the Past.ReutersMay , .

Razib Khan.Genetics and the Jews.Discover Magazine Gene ExpressionJune , .

Batsheva BonnTamir editor.Genetic Diversity Among the Jews Diseases and Markers at the DNA Level. New York, NY Oxford University Press, .

Although theproximity of the AJ and Italian populations could be explained by their admixtureprior to the Ashkenazi settlement in Central Europe , it should be noted that different demographic models may potentially yield similar principal component projections ; thus, it isalso consistent that the projection of the AJ populations is primarily the outcome of admixture with Central and Eastern European hoststhat coincidentally shift them closer to Italians along principle component axes relative to Middle Easterners.

Doron M. Behar, Daniel Garrigan, Matthew E. Kaplan, Zahra Mobasher, Dror Rosengarten, Tatiana M. Karafet, Lluis QuintanaMurci, Harry Ostrer, Karl Skorecki, and Michael F. Hammer. Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host nonJewish European populations.Human Genetics March . Ashkenazi Jews were sampled for this study and differentiated according to geographic, religious, and ethnohistorical subcategories like Byelorussian Jews and Dutch Jews. In Table on we see that the mutation lineage designation RM, corresponding to haplogroup Ra most often found among Ashkenazi Levites, is found at a frequency of . among the Ashkenazi Jews as a whole in this study, and at a frequency of . among the NonJewish Europeans French, Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, Poles, Romanians, and Russians in the study. ExcerptsHaplogroups J and E were by r the most prevalent haplogroups in AJ populations. Haplogroup J was present at similar frequencies in western AJ . and eastern AJ . populations, whereas haplogroup EM was present at lower frequencies in western AJ than in eastern AJ populations . versus ., respectively. …. This survey of variation at binary SNP and STR markers in a sample of Ashkenazi males from different western and eastern Europe communities represents the largest study of Ashkenazi paternal genetic variation to date. …. The best candidates for haplogroups that entered the AJ population recently via admixture include IP, RP, and RM. These haplogroups were thought to represent the major Paleolithic component of the European paternal gene pool… Because haplogroups RM and RP are present in nonAshkenazi Jewish populations e.g., at and , respectively and in nonJewish Near Eastern populations e.g., at and , respectively; Hammer et al. Nebel et al. , it is likely that they were also present at low frequency in the AJ founding population. The admixture analysis shown in Table suggests that of the Ashkenazi gene pool is, indeed, comprised of Y chromosomes that may have introgressed from nonJewish European populations. In particular, the Dutch AJ population appears to have experienced relatively high levels of European nonJewish admixture. … However, Dutch Jews do not appear to have increased levels of European mtDNA introgression Behar et al. , suggesting that admixture in this population is mainly the result of higher rates of intermarriage between Jewish woman [sic] and nonJewish men.

Nicholas Wade.Genes Suggest European Women at Root of Ashkenazi Family Tree.The New York TimesOctober , . ExcerptsA new genetic analysis eslishes that the women who founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community of Europe were not from the Near East, as previously supposed, and reinforces the idea that many Jewish communities outside Israel were founded by single men who married and converted local women. The study, published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, is based on a genetic analysis of maternal lineages. A team led by Martin B. Richards of the University of Huddersfield in England took a fresh look at Ashkenazi lineages by decoding the entire mitochondrial genomes of people from Europe and the Near East. With the entire mitochondrial genome in hand, Dr. Richards could draw up mily trees with a much finer resolution than before. His trees show that the four major Ashkenazi [maternalline] lineages in ct form clusters within descent lines that were eslished in Europe some , to , years ago. The same is true of most of the minor lineages. Overall, at least percent of Ashkenazi maternal ancestry comes from women indigenous to Europe, and percent from the Near East, with the rest uncertain, the researchers estimate. Dr. Richards estimates that the four major lineages became incorporated into the Ashkenazi community at least , years ago. A large Jewish community flourished in Rome at this time and included many converts. This community could have been the source of both the Ashkenazim of Europe and the Sephardim of Spain and Portugal, given that the two groups have considerable genetic commonality, Dr. Richards said.

Rita Rubin.Jews a Race Genetic Theory Comes Under Fierce Attack by DNA Expert.Jewish Forward, published online May , and in print on May , . Article about both sides in the debate over Elhaiks study.

The Ashkenazis moved from the MidEast to Italy and then to Eastern Europe, where their population exploded in the th Century, the scientists say. … The four women are thought to have lived in the Middle East about , years ago but they may not have lived anywhere near [an]other, according to the study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics. However, they bequeathed genetic signatures to their descendents, which do not appear in nonJews and are rare in Jews not of Ashkenazi origin.

Martin Richardss study, Marta D. Costa, Joana B. Pereira, Maria Pala, Vernica Fernandes, Anna Olivieri, Alessandro Achilli, Ugo A. Perego, Sergei Rychkov, Oksana Naumova, Jii Hatina, Scott R. Woodward, Ken Khong Eng, Vincent Macaulay, Martin Carr, Pedro Soares, Lusa Pereira, and Martin B. Richards.A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages.Nature Communications October , article number . The researchers sequenced mitochondrial genomes and looked at the mitochondrial genomes of over , iniduals of various ethnic groups from Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia. The specific Ashkenazi mtDNA origin frequencies are stated to be European, . Near Eastern, . Asian not including Western Asia, and . Unassigned. The Supplementary Figures documents written analysis says theres very little case to be made for any assimilation into Ashkenazi communities from peoples of the North Caucasus and Chuvashia. Figure details the frequencies they found for Europeanspecific mtDNA lineages in Ashkenazim . H, . HV, . I, . J, . K, . M, . Nb, T, . U, U, and . W. They didnt find haplogroups K, Nb, H, or J among Samaritans but did find they have several [haplogroups] that are in ct closely related to minor Ashkenazi lineages of putative Near Eastern origin Ua, Ra. Excerpts from the Abstract Like Judaism, mitochondrial DNA is passed along the maternal line. Its variation in the Ashkenazim is highly distinctive, with four major and numerous minor founders. However, due to their rarity in the general population, these founders have been difficult to trace to a source. Here we show that all four major founders, ~ of Ashkenazi mtDNA variation, have ancestry in prehistoric Europe, rather than the Near East or Caucasus. Furthermore, most of the remaining minor founders share a similar deep European ancestry. Thus the great majority of Ashkenazi maternal lineages were not brought from the Levant, as commonly supposed, nor recruited in the Caucasus, as sometimes suggested, but assimilated within Europe.

An excerpt from the body of the articleCentral and Eastern European Jews differ mostly in their Middle Eastern and , respectively and Eastern European ancestries and , respectively, probably due to late admixture. The close genetic distance between Central European Jews and Southern European populations can be attributed to a late admixture.

Jews and Arabs Share Recent Ancestry.Science NowAmerican Academy for the Advancement of Science, October , . In the last sentence, it is admitted that European Jews mixed with groups residing in Europe. ExcerptsMore than of Jewish men and half of the Arab men whose DNA was studied inherited their Y chromosomes from the same paternal ancestors who lived in the region within the last few thousand years. The results match historical accounts that some Moslem Arabs are descended from Christians and Jews who lived in the southern Levant, a region that includes Israel and the Sinai… Intrigued by the genetic similarities between the two populations, geneticist Ariella Oppenheim of Hebrew University in Jerusalem, who collaborated on the earlier study, focused on Arab and Jewish men. Her team examined the Y chromosomes of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews and Israeli and Palestinian Arabs. The Y chromosomes of many of the men had key segments of DNA that were so similar that they clustered into just three of many groups known as haplogroups. Other short segments of DNA called microsatellites were similar enough to reveal that the men must have had common ancestors within the past several thousand years. The study, reported here at a Human Origins and Disease conference, will appear in an upcoming issue of Human Genetics. Hammer praises the new study for focusing in detail on the Jewish and Palestinian populations. Oppenheims team found, for example, thatJews have mixed more with European populations, which makes sense because some of them lived in Europe during the last millennium.

Hillary Mayell. Genetic Link Eslished Between Jews and Arabs.National Geographic NewsMay , .

Evrei i kurdi bratya po genam.MIGnews Media International Group

James Xue, Todd Lencz, Ariel Darvasi, Itsik Peer, and Shai Carmi.The time and place of European admixture in Ashkenazi Jewish history.PLOS Genetics April , e. A study of Ashkenazi Jewish genomes, compared with other populations. Random subsets of the Ashkenazic samples were used during their various analyses. They came up with multiple potential models to explain Ashkenazic ancestry. Among the most plausible is their suggestion that Ashkenazim could be Middle Eastern, Southern European, Western European, and Eastern European. The ranges they list in Figure are Middle Eastern, Southern European, and Eastern European, but that model grossly overstates the amount of Eastern European DNA. Excerpts Under our model, admixture in Europe first happened in Southern Europe, and was followed by a founder event and a minor admixture event likely in Eastern Europe. Admixture in Southern Europe possibly occurred in Italy, given the continued presence of Jews there and the proposed Italian source of the early Rhineland Ashkenazi communities []. What is perhaps surprising is the timing of the Southern European admixture to ~ generations ago, since Jews are known to have resided in Italy already since antiquity. This result would imply no gene flow between Jews and local Italian populations almost until the turn of the millennium, either due to endogamy, or because the group that eventually gave rise to contemporary Ashkenazi Jews did not reside in Southern Europe until that time. Recent admixture in Northern Europe Western or Eastern is consistent with the presence of Ashkenazi Jews in the Rhineland since the th century and in Poland since the th century. Evidence from the IBD analysis suggests that Eastern European admixture is more likely; however, the results are not decisive. Two hundred genomes were simulated according to a way model with MiddleEast, SouthEU, EastEU, and WestEU ancestries

Nicholas Wade.New Light on Origins of Ashkenazi in Europe.The New York TimesJanuary , A. Excerpts

A. Silvana SantachiaraBenerecetti, Ornella Semino, G. Passarino, A. Torroni, R. Brdicka, M. Fellous, G. Modiano. The common, NearEastern origin of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews supported by Ychromosome similarity.Annals of Human Genetics January part . ExcerptsAbout Sephardim, Ashkenazim and Czechoslovaks were examined for the Yspecific RFLPs revealed by the probes pf and pa,f on TaqI DNA digests. The aim of the study was to investigate the origin of the Ashkenazi gene pool through the analysis of markers which, having an exclusively holoandric transmission, are useful to estimate paternal gene flow. The comparison of the two groups of Jews with each other and with Czechoslovaks which have been taken as a representative source of foreign Ychromosomes for Ashkenazim shows a great similarity between Sephardim and Ashkenazim who are very different from Czechoslovaks. On the other hand both groups of Jews appear to be closely related to Lebanese. A preliminary evaluation suggests that the contribution of foreign males to the Ashkenazi gene pool has been very low or less per generation.

Siiri Rootsi, Natalie M. Myres, Alice A. Lin, Mari Jrve, Roy J. King, Ildus A. Kutuev, Vicente M. Cabrera, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Krt Varendi, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Doron M. Behar, Rita Khusainova, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovska, Pavao Rudan, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Ardeshir Bahmhr, Shirin Farjadian, Alena Kushniarevich, Rene J. Herrera, Viola Grugni, Vincenza Battaglia, Carmela Nici, Francesca Crobu, Sena Karachanak, Baharak Hooshiar Kashani, Massoud Houshmand, Mohammad H. Sanati, Draga Toncheva, Antonella Lisa, Ornella Semino, Jacques Chiaroni, Julie Di Cristoro, Richard Villems, Toomas Kivisild, and Peter A. Underhill.Distinguishing the coancestries of haplogroup G Ychromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus.European Journal of Human Genetics s . First published online on May , . The freelyaccessibleSupplementary Informationcontains important data. PerSupplementary Table , of the Ashkenazi Jewish males in the study . had G haplogroups, compared to of the nonAshkenazi Jewish males ; these data were updated from Behar et al. . The G subclade frequencies didnt match between Ashkenazi and nonAshkenazi Jews. The GM mutation was found in . of the Ashkenazim but none of the nonAshkenazim. The GP mutation was found in . of the nonAshkenazim but none of the Ashkenazim had it. Also found exclusively among nonAshkenazim was GP with . of them possessing it, GM found in . of them, GM found in . of them, and GL found in . of them. Two subclades were held in common GM was found in . of Ashkenazim and the same percentage of nonAshkenazim, while GP was found in . of Ashkenazim and . of nonAshkenazim. Not one of the Mountain Jews in the study had a G haplogroup.

Jared Diamond. Who Are the Jews?Natural History November . Summary

Shai Carmi, Ken Y. Hui, Ethan Kochav, Xinmin Liu, James Xue, Fillan Grady, Saurav Guha, Kinnari Upadhyay, Dan BenAvraham, Semanti Mukherjee, B. Monica Bowen, Tinu Thomas, Joseph Vijai, Marc Cruts, Guy Froyen, Diether Lambrechts, Stphane Plaisance, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Philip Van Damme, Herwig Van Marck, Nir Barzilai, Ariel Darvasi, Kenneth Offit, Susan Bressman, Laurie J. Ozelius, Inga Peter, Judy H. Cho, Harry Ostrer, Gil Atzmon, Lorraine N. Clark, Todd Lencz, and Itsik Peer.Sequencing an Ashkenazi reference panel supports populationtargeted personal genomics and illuminates Jewish and European origins.Nature Communications September , article number . The complete genomes of Ashkenazi Jewish iniduals were examined. Based on their analysis, the authors estimate that Ashkenazi Jews are about of European origin, sharing ancestry with Western Europeans like the Flemish, who were also sampled in this study. The authors state that the other contributing population to Ashkenazic genetics are Middle Easterners. Their model suggests the present Ashkenazic population was founded after a bottleneck that occurred to generations ago, that is about years ago. The Ashkenazim have higher heterozygosity than nonJewish Europeans yet descend from a recent bottleneck of merely ~ iniduals. Page of theirSupplementary Informationunder Reasons for increased heterozygosity asserts Additionally, AJ genomes were shown to have ~ WestAfrican ancestry. This is highly questionable as the authors cite not their own data to support this claim, but rather the methodologicallyflawed study The history of African gene flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews by Moorjani et al. that appeared inPLoS Genetics in . Most other admixture tests have shown zero or at most . SubSaharan West African/Negroid ancestry in Ashkenazi iniduals, and only tiny amounts of East African as well. Neither the Supplementary Information provided by Carmi et al. nor their main article discuss the evidence for small amounts ofEast AsianandSlavicancestry in Eastern Ashkenazi Jews. Excerpt from the Abstract Modelling of ancient histories for AJ and European populations using their joint allele frequency spectrum determines AJ to be an even admixture of European and likely Middle Eastern origins.

Leonard B. Glick.Abrahams Heirs Jews and Christians in Medieval Europe. Syracuse, NY Syracuse University Press, . Glick is a cultural anthropologist and historian. Excerpt from xiIn the earliest period of Jewish settlement in Gaul… Jews were relatively well accepted, and Jewish men appear to have intermarried frequently enough with local nonJewish women probably all of whom converted to create a Jewish population of decidedly mixed genetic origins. Modern physical anthropological studies of European Jews have demonstrated conclusively that the term Semitic masks the large European component in the Jewish genetic pool.

Antonio ArnaizVillena, Nagah Elaiwa, Carlos Silvera, Ahmed Rostom, Juan Moscoso, Eduardo GmezCasado, Luis Allende, Pilar Varela, and Jorge MartnezLaso. The Origin of Palestinians and Their Generic Relatedness With Other Mediterranean Populations.Human Immunology September . Published by Elsevier Science Inc. Recalled by editors after publication. Retraction inHuman Immunology October . Abstract excerptsThe genetic profile of Palestinians has, for the first time, been studied by using human leukocyte antigen HLA gene variability and haplos. The comparison with other Mediterranean populations by using neighborjoining dendrograms and correspondence analyses reveal that Palestinians are genetically very close to Jews and other Middle East populations, including Turks Anatolians, Lebanese, Egyptians, Armenians and Iranians. Archaeologic and genetic data support that both Jews and Palestinians came from the ancient Canaanites, who extensively mixed with Egyptians, Mesopotamian and Anatolian peoples in ancient times…ExcerptsBoth Jews and Palestinians share a very similar HLA genetic pool Table , Figures , and that support a common ancient Canaanite origin…. Jews, Cretans, Egyptians, Iranians, Turks and Armenians are probably the closest relatives to Palestinians… p.

Lila Guterman. Science Journal Retracts Paper That Veered Into Geopolitical Speculation.The Chronicle of Higher EducationNovember , .

Yedael Y. Waldman , Arjun Biddanda , Natalie R. Davidson, Paul BillingRoss, Maya Dubrovsky, Christopher L. Campbell, Carole Oddoux, Eitan Friedman, Gil Atzmon, Eran Halperin, Harry Ostrer, and Alon Keinan.The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry.PLoS ONE March , e. Autosomal DNA analysis shows that the Bene Israel community of western India was formed by intermarriage between Middle Eastern Jewish men and local Indian women. Bene Israel iniduals were compared with hundreds of representatives of Jewish and nonJewish populations. They have increased lengths of identicalbydescent matches with Jewish populations from outside of India, including Mizrahi Jews, compared to any other population within India or Pakistan. A weakness of this study is that it doesnt compare the Bene Israel against any nonJewish population from the eastern Middle East Iran/Iraq area.

Batsheva BonnTamir.Indian Anthropologist. Claims that Yemenite Jews are descended from Arabic tribes that converted to Judaism.

Chao Tian, Robert M. Plenge, Michael Ransom, Annette Lee, Pablo Villoslada, Carlo Selmi, Lars Klareskog, Ann E. Pulver, Lihong Qi, Peter K. Gregersen, and Michael F. Seldin.Analysis and Application of European Genetic Substructure Using K SNP Information.Public Library of Science Genetics PLoS GeneticsJanuary . Abstract excerptEuropean population genetic substructure was examined in a erse set of , iniduals of European descent, each genod with K SNPs. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analyses PCA showed the largest ision/principal component PC differentiated northern from southern European ancestry. A second PC further separated Italian, Spanish, and Greek iniduals from those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry as well as distinguishing among northern European populations. In separate analyses of northern European participants other substructure relationships were discerned showing a west to east gradient.

For more information about SlavicAshkenazic links, see

Jorge MartinezLaso, Ephraim Gazit, Eduardo GomezCasado, Pablo Morales, Narcisa MartinezQuiles, Miguel Alvarez, J. M. MartinVilla, V. Fernandez, and Antonio ArnaizVillena. HLA DR and DQ polymorphism in Ashkenazi and nonAshkenazi Jews comparison with other Mediterraneans.Tissue Antigens January . ExcerptsHLADR and DQ alleles have been detected by DNA typing in Ashkenazi and nonAshkenazi Jews from Israel. Allele frequencies, characteristic DR/DQ linkage disequilibria, population distances and their corresponding dendrogram by using the NeighborJoining method were used to study relatedness between Jewish and other Mediterranean and non Mediterranean populations. Closest relatedness is observed between Ashkenazi and nonAshkenazi Jews, and, in decreasing order, also with Algerians, Spaniards including SpanishBasques, French and Italians. Also, particular characteristic Central European alleles are observed in Ashkenazi Jews and Mediterranean/African alleles in nonAshkenazi Jews. This is consistent with historical data, Jews being an ancient Mediterranean population, who have had a certain degree of admixture with their years old neighbors in spite of cultural and religious traditions which have preserved identity outside Israel.

Jon Entine.Ashkenazi Jewish Women Descended Mostly from Italian Converts, New Study Asserts.Genetic Literacy ProjectOctober , . Excerpts Professor Martin Richards, who heads the University of Huddersfields Archaeogenetics Research Group and who participated in the study, and colleagues sequenced mitochondrial genomes and analyzed more than , mitochondrial genomes r more data than the survey, which reviewed only a short length of the mitochondrial DNA, containing just , or so of its , DNA units, in all their subjects. According to Nicholas Wade of the New York Times, Doron Behar, one of the key authors of the analysis, said he disagreed with the conclusions, but has provided no detailed critique as yet. Wade also talked to David Goldstein, who said he believed the estimate that percent of Ashkenazi Jewry originated in Europe was too high considering the unpredicility of mitochondrial DNA data.

Lea Winerman. Is Being Jewish All in the Genes?New Voices National Jewish Student Magazine January . ExcerptsThe studies of the past several years have provided scinating insights into Jewish history, but theyve hardly closed the book on the question of modern Jews ancestry. Right now, two separate research groups are taking a more indepth look at the origins and migration patterns of Eastern European Jews. Michael Hammer and Harry Ostrer are leading one study; Dr. Vivian Moses and Dr. Neil Bradman are conducting the other at the Center for Genetic Anthropology at University CollegeLondon. Vivian Moses suggests that the results of his study might erge somewhat from what Hammer and his colleagues presented last June. I think perhaps we are using more DNA markers than they did, he says, and therefore the results might not be exactly the same. We already have somepreliminary indications of a link between [Eastern European Jews and] Slavs.

Excerpts from the body of the articleIf we allow for the possibility that Ka and Nb might have a Near Eastern source, then we can estimate the overall fraction of European maternal ancestry at ~. Given the strength of the case for even these founders having a European source, however,our best estimate is to assign ~ of Ashkenazi lineages to a European source, ~ to the Near East and ~ further to the east in Asia, with ~ remaining ambiguous . Thus at least twothirds and most likely more than fourfifths of Ashkenazi maternal lineages have a European ancestry.

The Ashkenazi Jewish AJ population has long been viewed as a genetic isolate, kept separate from its European neighbors by religious and cultural practices of endogamy . Ychromosome studies also indicate only a low amount of admixture with neighboring Europeans . Consistent with recent reports , , , principal component analysis PCA using these combined datasets confirmed that theAJ iniduals cluster distinctly from Europeans, aligning closest to Southern European populations along the first principal component, suggesting a more southern origin, andaligning with Central Europeans along the second, consistent with migration to this region Fig. S.

Michael F. Hammer, Alan J. Redd, Elizabeth T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Tanya Karafet, A. Silvana SantachiaraBenerecetti, Ariella Oppenheim, Mark A. Jobling, Trefor Jenkins, Harry Ostrer, and Batsheva BonnTamir.Jewish and Middle Eastern nonJewish Populations Share a Common Pool of Ychromosome Biallelic Haplos.,PNAS June , . SummaryThis study alleges that Jews around the world, both Sephardic and Ashkenazic, are more closely related to one another than to nonJews tested in the study, and that converts and intermarriages played little role in Jewish population history. But the study does not test peoples who are at all related to the Khazars, so the genetic distance between European Jews and Khazars was left untested, and the focus is on paternal rather than on maternal lines.

Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Marina Faerman, Himla Soodyall, and Ariella Oppenheim.Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews.European Journal of Human Genetics March . Preceded by advance electronic publication on November , . This study focuses on one of the two main nonMideastern YDNA lineages among Ashkenazic Jewish men haplogroup Ra the other is haplogroup Q.Abstract

Four mothers for Europes Jews.BBC NewsJanuary , . Excerpts

Graph of Ychromosome clusters derived from this studyLeb Lebanese, Ash Ashkenazic Jews, NAS North African Jews, NES Near Eastern Jews, Sep Sephardic Jews, SoS South Sardinian, Tur Anatolian Turkish, Ita Italian

Chris Garifo.U of A researcher heads breakthrough genetic study.Jewish News of Greater Phoenix May , . ExcerptsOur work definitely refutes a lot of that discussion of alternate origins for Jewish populations, Hammer says. It shows that we really are a single ethnic group coming from the Middle East. Even if you look like another European with blue eyes and light skin, your genes are telling that youre from the Middle East….. Hammer says one reason he began the research was his curiosity about his own Jewish roots.

Jon Entine.Jews Are a Race, Genes Reveal.ForwardMay , . ExcerptsIn his new book,Legacy A Genetic History of the Jewish People,Harry Ostrer, a medical geneticist and professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, claims that Jews are different, and the differences are not just skin deep. Jews exhibit, he writes, a distinctive genetic signature. Ostrer bolsters his analysis with volumes of genetic data, threads of Jewish ancestry link the sizable Jewish communities of North America and Europe to Yemenite and other Middle Eastern Jews who have relocated to Israel, as well as to the black Lemba of southern Africa and to Indias Cochin Jews. But, in a twist, the links include neither the Bene Israel of India nor Ethiopian Jews. Genetic tests show that both groups are converts, contradicting their founding myths. About of [the lineages of] Jewish males and of Jewish females trace their ancestry back to the Middle East. The rest entered the Jewish gene pool through conversion or intermarriage.

Anatole A. Klyosov criticizes Elhaiks study in an article in Russian inProceedings of the Academy of DNA Genealogy .

Doron Behars study, Doron M. Behar, Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Saharon Rosset, Shay Tzur, Yarin Hadid, Guennady Yudkovsky, Dror Rosengarten, Luisa Pereira, Antonio Amorim, Ildus A. Kutuev, David Gurwitz, Batsheva BonneTamir, Richard Villems, and Karl Skorecki.Counting the Founders The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora.PLoS ONE April , e. mirror mtDNA samples were gathered from Jews of nonAshkenazi origin including Georgian Jews, Indian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Tunisian Jews, Bulgarian Jews, and others plus samples from Near Eastern nonJews. These data were compared with data from Ashkenazi Jews. AbstractThe history of the Jewish Diaspora dates back to the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests in the Levant, followed by complex demographic and migratory trajectories over the ensuing millennia which pose a serious challenge to unraveling population genetic patterns. Here we ask whether phylogenetic analysis, based on highly resolved mitochondrial DNA mtDNA phylogenies can discern among maternal ancestries of the Diaspora. Accordingly, , samples from different nonAshkenazi Jewish communities were analyzed. A list of complete mtDNA sequences was eslished for all variants present at high frequency in the communities studied, along with highresolution genotyping of all samples. Unlike the previously reported pattern observed among Ashkenazi Jews, the numerically major portion of the nonAshkenazi Jews, currently estimated at million people and comprised of the Moroccan, Iraqi, Iranian and Iberian Exile Jewish communities showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect, which did however characterize the smaller and more remote Belmonte, Indian and the two Caucasus communities. TheIndian and Ethiopian Jewish sample sets suggested local female introgression, while mtDNAs in all other communities studied belong to a wellcharacterized West Eurasian pool of maternal lineages. Absence of subSaharan African mtDNA lineages among the North African Jewish communities suggests negligible or low level of admixture with females of the host populations among whom the African haplogroup Hg LL subclades variants are common. In contrast, theNorth African and Iberian Exile Jewish communities show influence of putative Iberian admixture as documented by mtDNA Hg HV variants.These findings highlight striking differences in the demographic history of the widespread Jewish Diaspora.ExcerptsIt is now possible to address the question of the matrilineal origin of these [nonAshkenazi] communities using phylogenetic resolution at maximum depth, and also to extend phylogeographic comparisons with a much wider range of reference populations. … The Jewish community of the Caucasus also known as Mountain Jews is believed to have been eslished during the th century C.E. in the region corresponding to Dagestan and the current state of Azerbaijan as a result of a movement of Jews from Iran. Indeed, this community shows a striking maternal founding event, with . of their total mtDNA genetic variation tracing back to only one woman carrying an mtDNA lineage within Hg Jb. … The Georgian Jewish community, considered to have been eslished in the th century C.E., similarly shows a founding event with . of its total mtDNA variation tracing back to one woman. … Multiple theories exist regarding the eslishment of the Ethiopian Beta Israel community… The four most frequent lineages belonged to Hgs Rab, Lhaa, Laa and Mac Table all frequent in the region [] suggesting East Africa and not the Levant as their likely geographic origin. The Indian Jewish community of Mumbai known as Bnei Israel oral history claim to have descended from Jews who reached the shores of India in the nd century C.E. MtDNA analysis for this community shows a strong maternal founding event, with . of its total mtDNA genetic variation tracing back to one woman and . tracking back to four women Table . The Indian Jewish community of Cochin myth claims the community to have emanated in the times of King Solomon and has had no documented contact with the Bnei Israel of Mumbai. This community also shows a strong maternal founding event, with . of its total mtDNA genetic variation tracing back to two women Table .In both Indian Jewish communities, their mtDNA gene pool is dominated by Hg M subbranches specific for the subcontinent [], and therefore appears to be of clearly local origin.It is important to note that in agreement with an oral tradition of the two independent founding events for the respective communities, the prevailing subbranches among Bnei Israel Hg M samples belong to Hgs Ma and Mca, while the Cochin Hg M subbranches belong to Hgs Ma and M Table . … The Libyan and Tunisian Jewish communities share, as their two most frequent mtDNA variants, lineages in Hgs Xeaa and H Table S. It is important to note that the Hg H is split by the coding region information into sublineages, one restricted to Libyan Jews and one primarily to Tunisian Jews. … The Yemenite Jewish community is thought to have been eslished in the second century CE. Here we found that . of the mtDNA variation in this community can be attributed to women carrying mtDNAs that belong to subbranches of Hgs Rac, Ra, HVb, Lxa and Ua. While these Hgs, except Lxa, can be considered as a part of the general West Asian mtDNA genetic pool, they have higher frequencies in East Africa and Yemen []. … The Libyan and Tunisian Jewish communities shared among them an Xeaa lineage as the most frequent. We examined the two LibyanTunisian Jewish lineagespecific coding region mutations and … Position appears uninformative, while was shared among Hg X samples from the Near East and Africa, but not from Europe, suggesting Near Eastern/ North African origin of the particular founder lineage. … The Iranian Jewish mtDNA is particularly rich in Hg H ., see Tables S and Table Sthe variant of maternal lineages that constitutes on average more than of the mtDNA variation in Europe. Hg H is also well represented in the Iraqi Jewish community with an overall frequency of . Tables S and Table S. Meanwhile, Hg H frequency in Ashkenazi Jews of recent European ancestry is . []. This raises an interesting question regarding the possible source of Hg H lineages among the various Jewish communities. Recent progress in the understanding of mtDNA variation in East and West Europe [][], as well as in the Near East [] fits with the inference that at least three quarters of Iranian and Iraqi Jewish Hg H genomes belong to subHgs H, H and H, characteristic of the Near EasternCentral Asian variants of Hg H. In view of the historical records claiming the eslishment of the North African Jewish communities from the Near Eastern Jewish communities, it is noteworthy that the communities do not share their respective major founding lineages. … Africanspecific Hgsvariants of largely subSaharan Hg LxM,Nas well as more northern and eastern Hgs M and U, do occur within the gene pools of some, though not all nonAshkenazi Jewish communities Table S. …they were found in Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews Tables S and Table S, perhaps reflecting the mtDNA population structure of the host countries. In contrast, it is intriguing to find that the North African Jews Moroccan, Tunisian, Libyan possess only a very small fraction of Hg LxM,N lineages . and, even more unexpectadly, seem to lack typically North African Hg M and U mtDNAs Tables S and Table S. In striking contrast, subSaharan L lineages are prevalent in North African Arab and Berber populations at frequencies around . in Moroccans, . in Tunisians, . in Libyans; our unpublished data, yielding a difference exceeding an order of magnitude. Curiously, the Ashkenazi mtDNA pool of recent European descent includes Hg LxM,N at a frequency comparable to that among North African Jewry [], []. Hence,the lack of U and M chromosomes among the North African Jews and the low frequency of Hg LxM,N lineages, renders the possibilty of significant admixture between the local Arab and Berber populations with Jews unlikely, consistent with social restrictions imposed by religious restrictions. … The second [case study] example highlighted the Georgian Jewish HVaa haplo Table , Figure b and showed that it existed only in Georgian Jews. While it is clear that the ancestry of this lineage can be traced to the broad geographic swathe encompassing the Near and Middle East as well as the Caucasus region, even the level of resolution generated from the complete mtDNA analysis could not provide greater phylogeographic specificity, since equidistant ancestral lineages could be found in each of the three geographic locations. The third case study addresses the shared LibyanTunisian Xeaa haplo. Again, it became clear that the ancestry of this lineage can be similarly attributed to the broad geographic region encompassing the Near and Middle East and the Caucasus region Table , Figure c, but unlike the Georgian case study, the particular haplo was shared with nonJewish Tunisians, encompassing . to the overall Tunisian mtDNA pool. In addition, no HVSI variation was observed in nonJewish Tunisians, while such variation was clearly observed in Jews, suggesting the possibility of gene flow into the host population from Jews.

Marilynn Larkin.JewishArab affinities are genedeep.The Lancet .

. Carmelli, D. and CavalliSforza, L.L. The genetic origin of the Jews A multivariate approach.Hum. Biol., . .

Early studies of mitochondrial DNA reported that Jewish women, unlike Jewish men, did not correlate well with one another globally. …Jewish males with antecedents in such widely separated places as Yemen, Georgia, and Bukhara in Central Asia are r more likely to share similar Ychromosome DNA with one another than with Yemenite, Georgian, or Bukharan nonJews. Jewish females from the same s, on the other hand, yield opposite results their mitochondrial DNA has markedly less resemblance to that of Jewish women from elsewhere than it does to that of nonJewish women in the countries their milies hailed from. … In the absence of rabbis to perform conversions, they [Jewish immigrants to new lands] married local women who, while consenting to live as Jews, were not halakhically Jewish. … In a class by itself is the mitochondrial DNA of Ashkenazi women. It does not correlate closely with the DNA of nonJewish women in Western, Central, or Eastern Europe and it has a large Middle Eastern component. …the Y chromosomes of Ashkenazi Jews have more in common with those of Italians and Greeks than with those of West Europeans. … An .percent incidence of RM among Ashkenazi Jews in general is easily explainable the mutation could have entered the Jewish gene pool slowly, in small increments in every generation, during the thousand years of Ashkenazi Jewrys existence. … But the percent rate among Levites is something else. Here we are dealing not with a gradual, longterm process for no imaginable process could have produced such results, but with a onetime event of some sort. … Both of our studies, therefore, raise the possibility that the original RM Levites were Khazarian Jews who migrated westward upon the ll of the Khazar kingdom. … Analyzing the data, the AmericanIsraeliBritish study concludes that the number of RM Levites absorbed by Ashkenazi Jewry ranged from one to fifty iniduals. … Nor do we know the percentage of Khazars possessing M, which is found in or percent of Russian and Ukrainian males today. If these were also its proportions among the Khazars, there would have been seven nonM Khazars joining or founding Ashkenazi Jewry for every Khazar who had the mutation. In sum, even if the RM Levites are traceable to Khazaria, the total flow of Khazarians into the East European Jewish population could have been anywhere from a single person to many thousands. If it was the latter, the Khazar input was significant, as David Goldstein suspects it was; if the former, it was trivial, as Jon Entine believes. … I myself have long suspected, starting r before I knew anything of historical genetics or Arthur KoestlersThe Thirteenth Tribe, that I have Khazar blood in me. One of my thers sisters had distinctly slanty eyes. In one of her daughters, these are even more pronounced. The daughters daughter has features that could come straight from the steppes of Asia.

For more information about the DNA of Jewish Cohens and Levites, see

John Tooby, Professor of Anthropology at the University of California at Santa Barbara, is quoted in an article forSlates Culturebox by Judith Shulevitz as saying The notion that Jews are a genetically distinct group doesnt make it on the basis of modern population genetics.

Christopher L. Campbell, Pier F. Para, Maya Dubrovsky, Laura R. Botigu, Marc Fellous, Gil Atzmon, Carole Oddoux, Alexander Pearlman, Li Hao, Brenna M. Henn, Edward Burns, Carlos D. Bustamante, David Comas Martnez, Eitan Friedman, Itsik Peer, and Harry Ostrer.North African Jewish and nonJewish populations form distinctive, orthogonal clusters.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA PNAS. Scheduled for print publication. First published online on August , . This investigates the roots of five Jewish populations from North Africa Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Djerban, and Libyan Jews and compares them to various Jewish and nonJewish groups. The researchers found evidence that North African Jews descend from ancient Israelites as well as North African converts to Judaism and confirmed that they intermarried with Sephardic Jews who settled there during the Inquisition era. The degree to which the North African Jewish groups descend from Europeans varied. The study was able to separate Moroccan and Algerian Jews from Djerban and Libyan Jews. The PCA analysis and structure analysis showed that nonJews of North Africa have more subSaharan African ancestry than Jews from North Africa do, confirming earlier studies like Behar et al. .

Tamara Traubman.Study finds close genetic connection between Jews, Kurds.HaaretzNovember , . ExcerptsThe people closest to the Jews from a genetic point of view may be the Kurds, according to results of a new study at the Hebrew University. Scientists who participated in the research said the findings seem to indicate both peoples had common ancestors who lived in the northern half of the fertile crescent, where northern Iraq and Turkey are today. Some of them, it is assumed, wandered south in prehistoric times and settled on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. Professor Ariella Oppenheim and Dr. Marina Feirman [sic Faerman], who carried out the research at the Hebrew University, said they were surprised to find a closer genetic connection between the Jews and the populations of the fertile crescent than between the Jews and their Arab neighbors… The present study, however, involved more detailed and thorough examinations than previous research. In addition, this was the first comparison of the DNA of Jews and Kurds… The studys findings are published in the current issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics. The researchers used the DNA of , Jewish men of Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Kurdish descent; Muslims and Christians of Kurdish, Turkish and Armenian descent; various Arab populations; and Russians, Poles and residents of Belarus.

Harry Ostrers study, Gil Atzmon, Li Hao, Itsik Peer, Christopher Velez, Alexander Pearlman, Pier Francesco Para, Bernice Morrow, Eitan Friedman, Carole Oddoux, Edward Burns, Harry Ostrer.Abrahams Children in the Genome Era Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry.The American Journal of Human Genetics June , s . AbstractFor more than a century, Jews and nonJews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and betweengroup Jewish genetic identity. Here, genomewide analysis of seven Jewish groups Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi and comparison with nonJewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent IBD analysis Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted largescale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the socalled demographic miracle of population expansion from , people at the beginning of the th century to ,, people at the beginning of the th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads.

Kate Yandell.Genetic Roots of the Ashkenazi Jews.The Scientist MagazineOctober , . Excerpts While it is clear that Ashkenazi maternal ancestry includes both Levantine [Near Eastern] and European originsthe assignment of several of the major Ashkenazi lineages to prehistoric European origin in the current study is incorrect in our view, physiciangeneticists Doron Behar and Karl Skorecki wrote in an email to The Scientist. They argue that the mitochondrial DNA data used in the new study did not represent the full spectrum of mitochondrial ersity. David Goldstein, said that the questions of whether there was a Khazar contribution to the Ashkenazi Jews lineage, or exactly what percentage of mitochondrial variants emanate from Europe, cannot be answered with certainty using present genetic and geographical data. Even if a set of variants are present in a specific region today, that doesnt mean that the region always had that set of variants. Some variants could have been lost due to drift, or perhaps migration altered the balance of variants present in the population.

Miscellaneous studiesYambazi Banda, Mark N. Kvale, Thomas J. Hoffmann, Stephanie E. Hesselson, H. Tang, Dilrini Ranatunga, Lawrence Walter, Catherine Schaefer, PuiYan Kwok, and Neil J. Risch.Admixture Estimation in a Founder Population.A presented at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics ASHG in October , in Boston, Massachusetts. Among other samples, they used , Ashkenazi Jewish samples provided by the Kaiser Permanente Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging GERA. Excerpts from the Abstract For the analysis of the AJ, we included surrogate Middle Eastern, Italian, French, Russian, and Caucasus subgroups to represent the ancestral populations. For the AJ, we estimated mean ancestral proportions of ., ., ., . and . for Middle Eastern, Italian, French, Russian and Caucasus ancestry, respectively. We also noted considerably less variation in the inidual admixture proportions for the AJ s.d. . to . compared to the AA [African American] s.d. ., consistent with an older age of admixture for the former.

Doron Behars study, Doron M. Behar, Mait Metspalu, Yael Baran, Naama M. Kopelman, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Ariella Gladstein, Shay Tzur, Havhannes Sahakyan, Ardeshir Bahmhr, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Kristiina Tambets, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Aljona Kusniarevich, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovsky, Lejla Kovacevic, Damir Marjanovic, Evelin Mihailov, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Costas Traintaphyllidis, Roy J. King, Ornella Semino, Anotonio Torroni, Michael F. Hammer, Ene Metspalu, Karl Skorecki, Saharon Rosset, Eran Halperin, Richard Villems, and Noah A. Rosenberg.No Evidence from GenomeWide Data of a Khazar Origin for the Ashkenazi Jews.Human Biology December s . Ashkenazi Jews are especially closely related to Sephardic Jews and North African Jews but substantially different from Middle Eastern Jews and especially different from Yemenite Jews. Jews from India and Ethiopia are genetically distinctive. Mountain Jews from Azerbaijan are somewhat genetically close to nonJewish peoples of the Caucasus including Armenians closer than Ashkenazim are to Armenians. Ashkenazim from more easterly regions of Europe differ from western Ashkenazim by having a little moreEast Asian and Northeast Asian ancestryand a little moreEastern Europeantoo. Eastern European peoples used for comparison in this study were Belarusians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Poles, Romanians, and Ukrainians. Ashkenazim are hardly connected to nonJews of the North Caucasus and VolgaUral regions the study includes the comparative populations Adygei, Balkar, Chechens, Kabardins, Kumyks, Lezgins, Nogai, North Ossetians, Tabarasans, Chuvashes, and Volga Tatars from those regions. Eastern Turkicspeaking peoples Altaians, Turkmens, Tuvinians, Uygurs, Uzbeks are very genetically distant from Ashkenazim as they have extremely low identicalbydescent sharing a measure of shared ancestors. Taking all their evidence together, the authors conclude on that there is no indication of a detecle Khazar contribution to Ashkenazim, although on they admit no direct link to extant populations has been eslished between Khazars and any modern populations they sampled. They did do a good job of including as many samples as possible from a region encompassing the geographic range believed to correspond to the Khazar Khaganate.Excerpts from

U. Ritte, E. Neufeld, M. Broit, D. Shavit, and U. Motro.The Differences Among Jewish Communities Material and Paternal Contributions.Journal of Molecular Evolution October .

Harry Ostrer.A genetic profile of contemporary Jewish populations.Nature Reviews Genetics November . ExcerptStudies of Ychromosal markers have provided an opportunity to assess gene flow into Jewish populations from nonJewish males. Contemporary Jews and Middle Eastern Arabs have common Ychromosomal haplos that are shared both within and across groups, indicating that the original Jews might have arisen from local peoples [Canaanites, Sumerians, etc.] and are not the offspring of a single patriarch [Abraham]. The most common Ychromosomal haplos are thought to be of Middle Eastern and North African origin, and the less common haplos of Asian origin, indicating that gene flow had a role in the formation of the Jewish people.

R. Highfield. Jews, Arabs share ancestral link, study says.Calgary HeraldMay , A.

Felice L. Bedford.Sephardic signature in haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA.European Journal of Human Genetics . First released electronically on November , . Excerpts from the AbstractA rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup Te is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews Four investigations were pursued Search of the motif in control region records across daases, comparison of frequencies of T subhaplogroups T, Tb, Tc, Te, T, T* across erse populations, creation of a phylogenic medianjoining network from public Te control region entries, and analysis of one Sephardic mitochondrial full genomic sequence with the motif. It was found that the rare motif belonged only to Sephardic descendents Turkey, Bulgaria, to inhabitants of North American regions known for secret SpanishJewish colonization, or were consistent with Sephardic ancestry. The incidence of subhaplogroup Te decreased from the Western Arabian Peninsula to Italy to Spain and into Western Europe. The ratio of sister subhaplogroups Te to Tb was found to vary fold across populations from a low in the British Isles to a high in Saudi Arabia with the ratio in Sephardim more similar to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Italy than to hosts Spain and Portugal.

AtTable Y Chromosome Haplogroup Distribution, it is indicated that . percent of Muslim Kurds and . percent of Bedouins also have Eu chromosomes; hence, genetic drift rather than admixture with East Europeans may theoretically explain Eu s presence among Ashkenazi Jews. On the other hand, the origin of Eu now known as Ra is from eastern Europe thousands of years ago, perhaps the kurgan culture, and is found in much higher quantities among Slavs like Sorbs, Belarusians, Ukrainians, and Poles than any Middle Eastern tribe. For further data consult figure in Ornella Semino, et al.,The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans a Y chromosome perspective,Science Nov. , , as well as the Levite study referenced here. [Update added December , The Ashkenazic Levite variety of Ra, sometimes called RaM, was later found to be from an Iranian source rather than an East European source.]

Chao Tian, Roman Kosoy, Rami Nassir, Annette Lee, Pablo Villoslada, Lars Klareskog, Lennart Hammarstrm, HenriJean Garchon, Ann E. Pulver, Michael Ransom, Peter K. Gregersen, and Michael F. Seldin.European Population Genetic Substructure Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing among Diverse European Ethnic Groups.Molecular Medicinevol. November , s . Sampled people from Italy Lombards, Tuscans, Sardinians, Southern ItalianAmericans living in New York and Ashkenazi Jews to geno them for , autosomal SNPs. ExcerptsThe current study extends the analysis of European population genetic structure to include additional southern European groups and Arab populations. Even within Italy, the relative position of northern Italians compared with subjects from Tuscany is consistent with the general geographic correspondence of PCA results. Interestingly, the majority of Italian Americans NYCP four grandparents defined appear to derive from southern Italy and overlap with subjects of Greek heritage. Both of these observations are consistent with previous historical information. Possible exceptions to this observation of geographic correspondence include the Ashkenazi Jewish population. While the Ashkenazi are clearly of southern origin based on both PCA and STRUCTURE studies, in our analyses of erse European populations, this group appears to have a unique genotypic pattern that may not reflect geographic origins.

Shmuel A. Cygielman. Article about Jewish settlement in Poland in medieval times inMedieval Jewish History An Encyclopedia, ed. Norman Roth. Routledge, . Excerpt…the Jews… in Poland… employed local Slavic slaves who aided them in developing their enterprises. The Jews were mostly single men, from Jewish centers in western and southern Europe… As by Jewish law, after seven years they were required to free their slaves, often, the owner, when his female slave continued working with him after her release, proposed that she remain with him as his wife, and undertake the management of the household as an equal partner, all on condition that she convert to Judaism. This could also explain the Slavic cast which often manifests itself on the ces of Jews from this region.

William Klitz, Loren Gragert, Martin Maiers, Marcelo FernandezVia, Y. BenNaeh, Gil Benedek, Chaim Brautbar, and Shoshana Israel.Genetic differentiation of Jewish populations.Tissue Antigens December s . First published online on September , . Most Jewish populations carry human leucocyte antigen HLA varieties of Middle Eastern origin, but the Ethiopian Jews are a nole exception. Ethiopian Jews instead show some affinity to Ethiopian nonJews. Excerpts from the Abstract We analyzed the HLA allele and haplo frequencies for each national sample using population genetic and clustering methods. We suggest that a major contributing ctor to the genetic ergence between Jewish groups may have been admixture with local host populations, while, at the same time, threads of Eastern Mediterranean ancestry remain evident.

Studies of human genetic ersity have barely begun. Yet the shion for genetic ancestry testing is booming…. Buoyed by the hype, the private sector has been moving in. Other groups, such as Jews, are now being targeted. This despite the ct that Jewish communities have little in common on their mitochondrial side the maternal line down which Judaism is traditionally inherited. Its the male side that shows common ancestry between different Jewish communities so, of course, thats what the geneticists focus on.

The assertion of Ostrer that Yiddish comes from Alsace and Rhineland has been debunked by solid research showing that Yiddish derives from Bavaria. Yiddish is clearly a form of High German, too, and not Low German. Epsteins article demonstrates a lack of linguistic knowledge.

Judit Beres and C. R. Guglielmino. Genetic Structure in relation to the history of the Hungarian ethnic group.Human Biology June about . SummaryStudies multiple nationalities Magyars, Jews, Gypsies, Germans, Slovaks, Kuns, Romanians, etc. In this very large study, Hungarian Jews were found to be highly distinct from all other groups residing in Hungary.

Christopher Hitchens.The PartJewish Question Double the Pleasure or Twice the Pain? Of SemiSemites and Those Who Fear Them.ForwardJanuary , . ExcerptsRecent advances in DNA testing have either simplified or complicated the claims of holy books and founding s. A riveting recent essay in Commentary described the results of a matchup between the genetic daase of the Kohanim those whose Jewish ancestry is supposedly the strongest and bestattested and that of a lost tribe in Namibia that has long claimed Jewish descent. The fit was amazingly close. So it is with other groups in the Asian diaspora, many of whose folk stories had been thought to be merely legendary. It also turns out that there is a close DNA affinity between Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs… How long before we can codify Khazar DNA and find out if Koestler was right or if the Ashkenazim have any genetic claim to Gaza? The learned author of the Commentary article, eventually concluded that enough was enough already, and that better uses could be found for the research money than the infinite theoretical expansion of the prolific seed of Abraham.

Get genetically tested to discover your relationship to other milies, other Jews, and other ethnic groups. Projects you might qualify to join include Gesher Galicia Jewish DNA Project, JewishGen Belarus SIG DNA Project, JewishGen Hungarian SIG DNA Project, German Jewish Gersig DNA Project, Jewish Frankfurt, Sephardic Heritage DNA Project, Jews of Rhodes Project, The Jewish Rb Project, Ashkenazi Levite Ra, and Jewish E Project.

Quinn Eastman of Emory University with ScienceDaily staff.Analysis of Ashkenazi Jewish Genomes Reveals Diversity, History.ScienceDailyAugust , . ExcerptsThrough genomic analysis, researchers at Emory University School of Medicine have shown that the Ashkenazi Jewish population is genetically more erse than people of European descent, despite previous assumptions that Ashkenazi Jews have been an isolated population. In addition, analyses of diseaserelated genes of higher prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population indicate that only a minority of traits show signs of positive selection, suggesting that most have arisen through random genetic drift. We were surprised to find evidence that Ashkenazi Jews have higher heterozygosity than Europeans, contradicting the widelyheld presumption that they have been a largely isolated group, says first author Steven Bray, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Warrens laboratory. High linkage disequilibrium can come either from an isolated population for example, an island whose residents are all descendents of shipwreck survivors or the relatively recent mixture of separate populations. Bray and his colleagues did find evidence of elevated linkage disequilibrium in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, but were able to show that this matches signs of interbreeding or admixture between Middle Eastern and European populations. The researchers were able to estimate that between and percent of the modern Ashkenazi genome comes from European descent. He adds that his groups analysis agrees with a recently published study from New York University and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and supports estimates of a high level of European admixture, accounting for up to half of the genetic makeup of contemporary Ashkenazi. The genomic analysis also provided information about selection pressures on mutations prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, such as those leading to conditions like TaySachs disease or mutations in cancer susceptibility genes like BRCA.

Dienekes o Major Groups of Living Jews.June , .

Bayazit Yunusbayev, Mait Metspalu, Mari Jrve, Ildus A. Kutuev, Siiri Rootsi, Ene Metspalu, Doron M. Behar, Krt Varendi, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Rita Khusainova, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Peter A. Underhill, Toomas Kivisild, and Richard Villems.The Caucasus as an asymmetric semipermeable barrier to ancient human migrations.Molecular Biology and Evolution s . First published online on September , . Among many other peoples of the Caucasus, Mountain Jews were sampled to evaluate their haplogroups. These Mountain Jews YDNA haplogroups were as follows belonged to haplogroup Je*, to Ja*, to Ja*, and to L. These haplogroups suggest overwhelmingly Near Eastern ancestry for the Mountain Jews paternal lineages represented by the J haplogroups and a smaller South Asian element represented by the L haplogroup.

Avshalom ZoossmannDisken, A. Ticher, I. Hakim, Z. Goldwitch, A. Rubinstein, and Batsheva BonnTamir.Genetic affinities of Ethiopian Jews..Israel Journal of Medical Sciences May s . Ethiopian Jews are Ethiopian Africans who converted to Judaism.

East/Northeast Asian Admixture in Ashkenazic Jews

Michael F. Seldin, Russell Shigeta, Pablo Villoslada, Carlo Selmi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Gabriel Silva, John W. Belmont, Lars Klareskog, and Peter K. Gregersen.European Population Substructure Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations.Public Library of Science Genetics PLoS Genetics September . AbstractUsing a genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism SNP panel, we observed population structure in a erse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between northern and southern European population groups most inidual participants with southern European ancestry Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek have membership in the southern population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have in the northern population group.Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewishorigin also showed membership in the southern population, consistent with a laterMediterraneanorigin of these ethnic groups.

For more information about Jewish genetic diseases, see

Talia Bloch.One Big, Happy Family Litvaks and Galitzianers, Lay Down Your Arms; Science Finds Unity in the Jewish Gene Pool.ForwardAugust , . Excerpts… A year ago, Michael Seldin, a geneticist at the University of California Davis School of Medicine, and his research team made a remarkable discovery Studying how Europeans grouped genetically, they found that Ashkenazic Jews formed their own distinct subgroup. Northern and Southern Europeans fell into two clearly separable genetic cohorts, and although the Ashkenazic Jews had more in common with the Southern Europeans, they formed a recognizable, relatively homogenous group of their own. … Through a series of collaborations with labs around the world, Seldin and his lab began exploring something called ancestry informative markers, specific areas of a persons genetic code that reveal which part of the globe most of his ancestors came from. The study on those of European ancestry, which looked at both Europeans and European Americans, was also an international collaboration. In September , it was published in the Public Library of Science Genetics journal. Since then, Seldin said, he has pursued a second study of an even larger sample of the genetic code, and his original findings for Ashkenazic Jews have only been confirmed. Seldins work is emblematic of a rapidly expanding phenomenon within genetics research of the genetic roots of diseases that end up revealing something about the history of a particular population.

Doron M. Behar, Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Alessandro Achilli, Yarin Hadid, Shay Tzur, Luisa Pereira, Antonio Amorim, Llus QuintanaMurci, Kari Majamaa, Corinna Herrnstadt, Neil Howell, Oleg Balanovsky, Ildus A. Kutuev, Andrey Pshenichnov, David Gurwitz, Batsheva BonneTamir, Antonio Torroni, Richard Villems, and Karl Skorecki. The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry Portrait of a Recent Founder Event.American Journal of Human Genetics March . First published electronically on January , . AbstractBoth the extent and location of the maternal ancestral deme from which the Ashkenazi Jewry arose remain obscure. Here, using complete sequences of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA mtDNA, we show that close to onehalf of Ashkenazi Jews, estimated at ,, people, can be traced back to only women carrying distinct mtDNAs that are virtually absent in other populations, with the important exception of low frequencies among nonAshkenazi Jews. We conclude that four founding mtDNAs, likely of Near Eastern ancestry, underwent major expansions in Europe within the past millennium.

Judy Siegel. Ashkenazim come from matriarchs.Jerusalem PostJanuary , . Excerpts

Michael Hammers study, Rachel Flaux. Chercher ses racines par lADN En qute didentit.Sciences et AvenirNo. April . ExcerptsLa diaspora juive est lautre communaut directement intresse par les technologies ADN. Family Tree DNA en a it son point fort. Il est vrai que cette compagnie texane, qui se flatte d offrir les tests du chromosome Y les plus prcis de toute lindustrie , est associe au gnticien Mike Hammer de luniversit dArizona, dont cest prcisment la spcialit. Le chercheur a ainsi publi il y a quatre ans, dans la revue Nature, une tude portant sur les Cohanim ou Cohen, ces grands prtres juifs qui se transmettent leur titre de pre en fils depuis ans, selon la tradition biblique. Analysant le chromosome Y des derniers Cohanim, Mike Hammer a montr que lon pouvait bel et bien remonter leur ligne paternelle jusqu un anctre mle, peuttre cet Aaron dcrit dans la Bible comme le premier des grands prtres. Finalement, tant chez les Srades que chez les Ashknazes, les Cohen portent la mme signature chromosomique, trs distincte des autres. Le gnticien dArizona a galement lucid le mystre des Khazars lire p. , dmontant la thorie selon laquelle cette tribu dEurope centrale pourrait tre lorigine des Ashknazes. Sourd aux critiques dune fraction de la communaut juive, qui redoute un fichage gntique, Mike Hammer a lanc en collaboration avec le Dr Harry Ostrer, de lEcole de mdecine de luniversit de New York, le projet Jewish Genetic Origins . Son ambition est de suivre la diaspora la trace, de permettre chacun de ses membres de retisser, depuis le XVIIIe sicle au moins, lhistoire et lorigine dune mille clate. Huit cents hommes et femmes ont dj it don de leur ADN accompagn de larbre dtaill de leur mille .

Recent genetic studies, based on Y chromosome polymorphic markers, showed that Ashkenazi Jews are more closely related to other Jewish and Middle Eastern groups than to their host populations in Europe. However, Ashkenazim have an elevated frequency of RM, the dominant Y chromosome haplogroup in Eastern Europeans, suggesting possible gene flow. In the present study of Y chromosomes of Ashkenazim, . were found to belong to RM. Detailed analyses of haplo structure, ersity and geographic distribution suggest a founder effect for this haplogroup, introduced at an early stage into the evolving Ashkenazi community in Europe. RM chromosomes in Ashkenazim may represent vestiges of the mysterious Khazars.

Stephen Magagnini.DNA helps unscramble the puzzles of ancestry.The Sacramento BeeAugust , . This article mentions several cases of inidualized genetic testing by companies like Trace Genetics and Family Tree DNA. Of interest to us is the case of an Ashkenazi woman whose mtDNA bears the marker of the transversion at np, which may have originated among the Han Chinese people and travelled westward along the Silk Road into Uzbekistan. This marker is not likely to have been common among the Khazars. ExcerptsThe brave new world of DNA rootsquests barely three years old sometimes produces surprising results. … And a Jewish schoolteacher from Oakland learned at least one of her forebears came out of China. … Alanya Snyder, a [Ashkenazi] Jewish middle school teacher in Oakland [with maternalline ancestry from Moldova], had her [mt] DNA tested [by Trace Genetics of Davis, California] as a wedding present and discovered she matches people from central Asia [including some Uzbekistani Jews near Bukhara, plus some Han Chinese inhabitants of eastern China and some Mongolians]. The news thrilled Snyders mother, Carel Bertram, a San Francisco State professor with a lifelong love of Turkic art and culture. Bertram suspects she and Snyder are descendants of theKhazars, a Turkicspeaking group that converted to Judaism about A.D. and later was conquered by the Kiev Rus, or early Russians. Maybe there was this wonderful, Turkicspeaking Jewish woman, she mused. Its so enriching, something added to my life that I had not expected.

Dan Even.International genetic study traces Jewish roots to ancient Middle East.HaaretzAugust , . ExcerptsA new study of genetic affinity among Jewish communities has uncovered evidence of genetic roots among Jews from North Africa that stretch back , years. Syrian Jews have more genetic commonality with Ashkenazi European Jews than with other oriental Jews Jews from Asian and African lands. Also, Yemenite Jews, who have long been thought to have lived in isolation, apparently have genetic connections with people from neighboring states. Jews of North African origins have greater genetic affinity with Ashkenazi Jews that with nonJewish residents from North African countries.

Ancestrys Jewish Family History Collection searchable daases

Malcolm Ritter.Study Most Ashkenazi Jews from four women.Associated PressJanuary , . Excerpts

Hillel Halkin.Jews and Their DNA.Commentary Magazine September beginning on . Excerpts

In Figure of Nebel et al.s , it can be seen that while some Muslim Kurds possess the Cohen Modal Haplo at a frequency of ., and even some Palestinian Arabs do at a frequency of ., more Muslim Kurds . have a haplo that is a different Y DNA lineage, with a different allele number in one of the six microsatellite locis. Figure is also interesting since it shows that . of Palestinian Arabs have the Cohen Modal Haplo.

Norton Godoy.Judeus e rabes irmos.Isto.

. Hammer, M.F. et al. [ authors]. Jewish and Middle Eastern nonJewish populations share a common pool of Ychromosome biallelic haplos.Proceedings National Academy Sciences USA…

Ariella Oppenheims study, Almut Nebel, Ariella Oppenheim, Dvora Filon, Mark G. Thomas, D. A. Weiss, M. Weale, Marina Faerman.Highresolution Y chromosome haplos of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplos of Jews.Human Genetics December . Abstract excerptsHighresolution Y chromosome haplo analysis was performed in paternally unrelated Israeli and Palestinian Moslem Arabs IP Arabs by screening for binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci. At the haplogroup level, defined by the binary polymorphisms only, the Y chromosome distribution in Arabs and Jews was similar but not identical. At the haplo level, determined by both binary and microsatellite markers, a more detailed pattern was observed. Singlestep microsatellite networks of Arabs and Jewish haplos revealed a common pool for a large portion of Y chromosomes, suggesting a relatively recent common ancestry. The two modal haplos in the IP Arabs were closely related to the most frequent haplo of Jews the Cohen modal haplo. However, the IP Arab clade that includes the two Arab modal haplos and makes up of Arab chromosomes is found at only very low frequency among Jews, reflecting ergence and/or admixture from other populations. Mirror

Doron Behars study, Doron M. Behar, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Mait Metspalu, Ene Metspalu, Saharon Rosset, Jri Parik, Siiri Rootsi, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Ildus A. Kutuev, Guennady Yudkovsky, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Oleg Balanovsky, Ornella Semino, Luisa Pereira, David Comas Martnez, David Gurwitz, Batsheva BonneTamir, Tudor V. Parfitt, Michael F. Hammer, Karl Skorecki, and Richard Villems.The genomewide structure of the Jewish people.Nature July , . First published online June . Among the tested populations were Ashkenazic Jews from eastern Europe, Sephardic Jews from Bulgaria and Turkey, Bukharan Jews of Central Asia, Jews of India, Ethiopian Jews, and Yemenite Jews. They were compared to peoples such as Italians from Tuscany and Sardinia, Russians, Chuvashes, Lithuanians, Adygeis, Lezgins, Georgians, Armenians, Basques, French, Romanians, Syrians, Palestinians, Jordanians, Turks, Cypriots, and several others. AbstractContemporary Jews comprise an aggregate of ethnoreligious communities whose worldwide members identify with each other through various shared religious, historical and cultural traditions. Historical evidence suggests common origins in the Middle East, followed by migrations leading to the eslishment of communities of Jews in Europe, Africa and Asia, in what is termed the Jewish Diaspora. This complex demographic history imposes special challenges in attempting to address the genetic structure of the Jewish people. Although many genetic studies have shed light on Jewish origins and on diseases prevalent among Jewish communities, including studies focusing on uniparentally and biparentally inherited markers, genomewide patterns of variation across the vast geographic span of Jewish Diaspora communities and their respective neighbours have yet to be addressed. Here we use highdensity bead arrays to geno iniduals from Jewish Diaspora communities and compare these patterns of genomewide ersity with those from Old World nonJewish populations, of which have not previously been reported. These samples were carefully chosen to provide comprehensive comparisons between Jewish and nonJewish populations in the Diaspora, as well as with nonJewish populations from the Middle East and north Africa. Principal component and structurelike analyses identify previously unrecognized genetic substructure within the Middle East. Most Jewish samples form a remarkably tight subcluster that overlies Druze and Cypriot samples but not samples from other Levantine populations or paired Diaspora host populations. In contrast,Ethiopian Jews Beta Israel and Indian Jews Bene Israel and Cochini cluster with neighbouring autochthonous populations in Ethiopia and western India, respectively, despite a clear paternal link between the Bene Israel and the Levant. These results cast light on the variegated genetic architecture of the Middle East, and trace theorigins of most Jewish Diaspora communities to the Levant.

Naama Kopelmans study, Naama M. Kopelman, Lewi Stone, Chaolong Wang, Dov Gefel, Marcus W. Feldman, Jossi Hillel, and Noah A. Rosenberg.Genomic microsatellites identify shared Jewish ancestry intermediate between Middle Eastern and European populations.BMC Genetics published online only, December , . Mirror ExcerptsWe perform a genomewide populationgenetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing autosomal microsatellite loci in iniduals from four Jewish groups together with similar data on iniduals from nonJewish Middle Eastern and European populations. … We find that the Jewish populations show a high level of genetic similarity to each other, clustering together in several s of analysis of population structure. Further, Bayesian clustering, neighborjoining trees, and multidimensional scaling place the Jewish populations as intermediate between the nonJewish Middle Eastern and European populations. … These results support the view that the Jewish populations largely share a common Middle Eastern ancestry and that over their history they have undergone varying degrees of admixture with nonJewish populations of European descent. … The Middle Eastern populations included in the study were Bedouin , Druze , Mozabite , and Palestinian . The European populations were Adygei , Basque , French , Italian , Orcadian , Russian , Sardinian , and Tuscan . Middle Eastern and European nonJewish iniduals were taken from the H subset of the HPCEPH panel []. The Jewish samples included Ashkenazi Jews , Moroccan Jews , Tunisian Jews , and Turkish Jews . … Figure illustrates the major clustering solutions for each value of K from to . … For K , the Druze, Bedouins and Palestinians are each largely distinct in cluster membership coefficients; the Jewish populations show somewhat greater similarity to these three Middle Eastern groups than do the European populations other than the Adygei, but they also have greater similarity to the European populations than do the Middle Eastern groups. Among the European populations, the Adygei population, from the Caucasus region, shows some similarity in cluster membership coefficients to the Jewish populations, especially to the Ashkenazi population this similarity is also observable for K and K . For K , the new cluster produced contains most Palestinian iniduals, as well as sizable components of the four Jewish populations, the Adygei and the Bedouins. For K , this cluster is further subided, producing one cluster that corresponds mainly to Palestinians and one cluster that corresponds mainly to the Jewish populations and to a lesser extent, the Adygei and Bedouins. … French and Palestinians also provide the most similar pair for Moroccan Jews, with coefficients very nearly equal to the values in the case of Turkish Jews ? . for French. The most similar pair for Ashkenazi Jews consists of French and Turkish Jews ? ., whereas for Tunisian Jews the most similar pair consists of Sardinians and Palestinians ? . for Sardinians. For all four Jewish populations, many of the ten closest pairs of populations consist of one Middle Eastern population and either one European population or one of the other Jewish populations. …The Tunisian Jews are located further from the pooled European populations than are any of the other Jewish populations… The plot places the Palestinians closer to the Moroccan and Turkish Jews than to the other Jewish populations… It further suggests that the Tunisian Jews are the most distinctive Jewish population, whereas the Ashkenazi, Turkish, and Moroccan Jewish populations are genetically more similar to each other. … The Turkish Jews are not easily distinguished from the Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews in the MDS analysis, and are placed in positions overlapping with the Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jewish iniduals. … While the ultimate te of the Khazar population remains unknown, the theory has been advanced that a large fraction of the ancestry of eastern European Jews derives from theKhazars[,]. This theory would predict ancestry for the eastern European Ashkenazi Jewish population to be distinct from that of the other Jewish populations in the study. Although we did not observe such a distinct ancestry, it is noteworthy that in some analyses … we did detect similarity of the Adygei, a north Caucasian group from the area once occupied by the Khazars, to the Jewish populations. … Among the Jewish populations, the Tunisians were found to be the least variable and most distinctive, and their genos could be most easily distinguished from those of the three other Jewish populations. This result suggests a smaller population and greater degree of genetic isolation for this population compared to the other Jewish groups, or a significant level of admixture with local populations. These explanations are not incompatible, as it is possible that early admixture was followed by a long period of isolation. SomeBerberadmixture of Tunisian Jews may very well have taken place [,], and documentation of rare Mendelian disorders in Tunisian Jews [] supports a view of isolation with relatively few founding iniduals. A smallerscale autosomal study that did not include Tunisian Jews found the neighboring Libyan Jewish population to be distinctive with respect to other Jewish populations [], and our results concerning the Tunisian Jewish population might reflect a similar phenomenon.

Maggie Fox.Study finds why Jewish mothers are so important.ReutersJanuary , . Excerpts

Robin McKie.Journal axes gene research on Jews and Palestinians.The ObserverNovember , .

We used the combined Palestinian and Druze populations to represent the Middle Eastern ancestor and tested three different European groups as the European ancestral population SI Materials and Methods. Using these proxy ancestral populations,we calculated the amount of European admixture in the AJ population to be to . Previous estimates of admixture levels have varied widely depending on the chromosome or specific locus being considered , with studies of Ychromosome haplogroups estimating from to European admixture , . Our higher estimate is in part a result of the use of different proxies for the Jewish ancestral population.

Max Gross. A Certain People Study Confirms Deep Similarities Among Jews.ForwardAugust , B. ExcerptsProfessor Ariella Oppenheim of Hebrew University, a geneticist of mixed Ashkenazic and Sephardic descent and one of six scientists who authored the study, called the results surprising. I expected a few more admixtures, Oppenheim told the Forward. Almost all the researchers expected to see a greater link between Ashkenazic Jews and nonJewish Eastern Europeans. They thought they would see in the bloodlines the results of Eastern European pogroms, when many Jewish women were raped, producing offspring whose biological thers were not Jewish…. It had an effect, Oppenheim said, but it didnt significantly alter the gene pool. Ashkenazic Jews are still closer, genetically, to Sephardic and Kurdish Jews than to any other population…. Part of [the study] was financed by [the government of] India, Oppenheim said…. The scientists looked at Ychromosomes, which come from the male, Mostly because [they] give us a bit of a r picture, Oppenheim said. Oppenheim said that a more thorough study, involving mitochondrial DNA, which comes from the female, will soon get under way.

Noah A. Rosenberg, Eilon Woolf, Jonathan K. Pritchard, Tamar Schaap, Dov Gefel, Isaac Shpirer, Uri Lavi, Batsheva BonnTamir, Jossi Hillel, and Marcus W. Feldman.Distinctive genetic signatures in the Libyan Jews.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA PNAS January , . Mirror ExcerptsIt is consistent with historical sources that the Libyan Jews should separate from and show strong differentiation from the other populations of our study. This population has a unique history among North African Jewish communities, including an early founding, a harsh bottleneck, possible admixture with local Berbers, limited contact with other Jewish communities, and small in the recent past…. Ethiopian Jewish Ychromosomal haplos are often present in Yemenite and other Jewish populations…, but analysis of Ychromosomal haplo frequencies does not indicate a close relationship between Ethiopian and other Jewish groups…. However, the evidence of an African contribution to the ancestry of Ethiopian Jews and the evidence of communication across the Red Sea suggest that gene flow between these populations would be a more plausible explanation for our clustering of some Yemenite Jews with some Ethiopian Jews. Recent studies suggest that the Lemba of southern Africa derive partly from Yemenite Jews or other Semitic peoples of this region , and that Ethiopians share a combination of African and Middle Eastern genos and languages…. Although gene flow between the Ethiopian and Yemenite Jewish populations is one explanation of our results, it is also possible that gene flow did not occur directly between these two populations, but rather took place between nonJewish populations of Ethiopia and Arabia, between Ethiopian Jews and Ethiopian nonJews, and also between Yemenite Jews and Yemenite nonJews.

Mait Metspalu, Doron M. Behar, Y. Baran, Saharon Rosset, N. Kopelman, Bayazit Yunusbayev, A. Gladstein, Michael F. Hammer, Shay Tzur, E. Halperin, Karl Skorecki, Richard Villems, and Noah A. Rosenberg. No indication of Khazar genetic ancestry among Ashkenazi Jews. A presented at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics ASHG in October , in Boston, Massachusetts. Some of the comparisons here are of questionable utility since the Khazars did not descend originally from the ancient peoples of the Caucasus and there is no proof that modern Caucasus peoples are descended from Khazars. So, the study doesnt directly test for Khazarian descent. Excerpts from the Abstract It has been difficult to explicitly test for Khazar contributions into Ashkenazi Jews, because it is not clear which extant populations can be used to represent modern descendants of the Khazars, and because the proximity of the southern Caucasus region to the Middle East makes it difficult to attribute any potential signal of Caucasus ancestry to Khazars rather than Middle Eastern populations. Here, we assemble the largest sample set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins, containing genomewide singlenucleotide polymorphism data in , samples from Jewish and nonJewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry Europe, the Middle East, and populations from the region historically associated with the Khazar kingdom at its peak. Employing a variety of standard techniques for the analysis of population structure, we find that Ashkenazi Jewish samples share the greatest genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations, and among nonJewish populations, with groups from Mediterranean Europe and the Middle East, and that they have no particular signal of genetic sharing with populations from the Caucasus. Thus, analysis of the most comprehensive set of Jewish and other Middle Eastern and European populations together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar kingdomdoes not support the hypothesis of a significant contribution of the elusive Khazars into the gene pool of the Ashkenazi Jews.

Nicholas Wade. Scientists Rough Out Humanitys ,YearOld Story.The New York TimesNovember , . ExcerptsAnalysis of the Y chromosome has already yielded interesting results. Dr. Ariella Oppenheim of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem said she had found considerable similarity between Jews and Israeli and Palestinian Arabs, as if the Y chromosomes of both groups had been drawn from a common population that began to expand , years ago.

Jewish Genetics Abstracts and Summaries IndexBooks About Jewish Genetics

Judy Siegel.Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe.Jerusalem PostNovember , . ExcerptsDespite being separated for over , years, Sephardi Jews of North African origin are genetically indistinguishable from their brethren from Iraq, according to The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. They also proved that Sephardi Jews are very close genetically to the Jews of Kurdistan, and only slight differences exist between these two groups and Ashkenazi Jews from Europe. These conclusions are reached in an article published recently in the American Journal of Human Genetics and written by Prof. Ariella Oppenheim of the Hebrew University HU and HadassahUniversity Hospital in Ein Kerem. Others involved are German doctoral student Almut Nebel, Dr. Marina Faerman of HU, Dr. Dvora Filon of HadassahUniversity Hospital, and other colleagues from Germany and India. The researchers conducted blood tests of Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Kurdish Jews and examined their Y chromosomes, which are carried only by males. They then compared them with those of various Arab groups Palestinians, Beduins, Jordanians, Syrians and Lebanese as well as to nonArab populations from Transcaucasia Turks, Armenians and Moslem Kurds. The study is based on Y chromosomes d by the Israeli team and additional data on , iniduals from populations… Surprisingly, the study shows a closer genetic affinity by Jews to the nonJewish, nonArab populations in the northern part of the Middle East than to Arabs.

A. L. Non, A. AlMeeri, R. L. Raaum, L. F. Sanchez, and C. J. Mulligan.Mitochondrial DNA reveals distinct evolutionary histories for Jewish populations in Yemen and Ethiopia.American Journal of Physical Anthropology January s . First published online on July , . This study of mtDNA included Yemenite Jewish participants, Ethiopian Jewish paticipants, Yemenite nonJewish participants, and some Ethiopian nonJewish participants who speak Semitic languages. The results showed Yemenite Jews and Ethiopian Jews both have high frequencies of subSaharan African L haplogroups indicating a significant African maternal contribution unlike other Jewish Diaspora populations. However, no identical haplos were shared between the Yemenite and Ethiopian Jewish populations, suggesting very little gene flow between the populations and potentially distinct maternal population histories. The authors explain that Ethiopian Jews are maternally Ethiopian rather than Israelite in origin, but they think Yemenite Jews partially have potential descent from ancient Israeli exiles and dont believe they have much ethnic Yemenite ancestry.

This collects YDNA and mtDNA data and analysis related to traditionally Rabbinical Jewish populations of the world, including Ashkenazim Jews of Northern and Eastern Europe Sephardim Spanish and Portuguese Jews Mizrakhim Middle Eastern Jews Italkim Italian Jews Caucasian Mountain Jews Dagestani and Azerbaijani Jews Georgian Jews Indian Jews North African Jews Yemenite Jews Ethiopian Jews

North African Jews show slightly elevated membership in thek component prevalent in African populations. Similarly, in the Ashkenazi Jews, the proportion of the largely Europeank component is somewhat larger than that in the Sephardi Jews vs. . Within the Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern and Central Europe, we do see a signal . of components common in East Asia that are less visible in Ashkenazi Jews from Western Europe or European Sephardi Jews ..

Judy Siegel.Experts find genetic JewishArab link.Jerusalem PostNovember , . Despite its merits, this study uses a small sample and an improbable set of test subjects. It is puzzling that the Northern Welsh were tested, because its obvious that they are rther away from European Jews than Arabs. Why were they tested instead of the Serbs, Romanians, Italians, or Austrians groups which, unlike the Welsh, had significant contact with Jews over the centuries? The selection of groups influences the results of any genetics study. Notice, however, that even according to this test, somewhere between and percent of the Jews do NOT have paternalline ancestry from Israel. ExcerptsDNA research carried out at the Hebrew UniversityHadassah Medical School and University College in London has shown that many Jews and Arabs are closely related. Over seven out of Jewish men and half of Arab men whose DNA was studied inherited their Y chromosomes from the same paternal ancestors who lived in the Middle East in the Neolithic period in prehistoric times. The research, to be published soon in the journal Human Genetics… was carried out by Prof. Ariella Oppenheim, a senior geneticist in the Hebrew Universitys hematology department. Dr. Marina Faerman, Dr. Dvora Filon of the HadassahUniversity Hospital in Jerusalem, HU doctoral student Almut Nebel, and Mark Thomas and others at the British university assisted. The work was also reported last week in the journal Science. Oppenheim and her colleagues tested blood from Israeli and Palestinian Moslem Arabs whose greatgrandthers were not related. Chromosome set data were compared with that of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews, and to that of nonJewish residents of northern Wales. The researchers found that the Arabs are more closely related to Jews than they are to the Welsh, indicating a more recent common ancestry. Arabs and Jews had about percent of all their chromosomes in common… Our findings are in good agreement with historical evidence and suggest genetic continuity in both populations despite their long separation and the wide geographic dispersal of Jews, Oppenheim wrote.

Grard Lucotte and Graldine Mercier.Ychromosome DNA haplos in Jews comparisons with Lebanese and Palestinians.Genetic Testing Spring . AbstractOne Yspecific DNA polymorphism p/Taq I was studied in Lebanese and Palestinian males, and compared with the results found in Jews from three communities Oriental, Sephardic, and Ashkenazic. Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jews seem to be similar in their Yhaplo patterns, both with regard to the haplo distributions and the ancestral haplo VIII frequencies. The haplo distribution in Oriental Jews is characterized by a significantly higher frequency of haplo VIII. These results confirm similarities in the Yhaplo frequencies in Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jewish men, three NearEastern populations sharing a common geographic origin.

Some revealing comments from the studys geneticists Dina Krafts May , article in the Associated Press quotes Hebrew University geneticist Howard Cedar who said even though Y chromosomes are considered the best tool for tracing genetic heritage,researchers still dont know what the history is behind the variations. As a result, it is difficult to draw conclusions about genetic affinity.. The article also quotes Batsheva BonneTamir, a Tel Aviv University geneticist, who cautioned that the techniques were new and that until the human genome is mapped,it will be difficult to be certain about the conclusions.

E. S. Poloni, Ornella Semino, G. Passarino, A. Silvana SantachiaraBenerecetti, I. Dupanloup, A. Langaney, and L. Excoffier.Human Genetic Affinities for YChromosome Pa,f/TaqI Haplos Show Strong Correspondence with Linguistics.American Journal of Human Genetics . ExcerptsAfroAsiatic and IndoEuropean samples differentiate along the second axis of the multivariate analysis. The Sephardim Jews, the Ashkenazim Jews, the Turks, and the Lebanese samples are genetically located at the intersection of these two linguistic groups, the Ashkenazim samples being somewhat closer to IndoEuropeans…. Although the overall pattern of population differentiation globally appears to be very similar for male and femaletransmitted markers fig. , some populations clearly show different affinities for their maternal and paternal genetic components, as already noticed for Ethiopian Jews ZoosmannDiskin et al. , Arab tribal groups in the Sinai Peninsula Salem et al. , Finns Zerjal et al. , and Basques as discussed above.

Ariella Oppenheims study, Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Bernd Brinkmann, Partha P. Majumder, Marina Faerman, and Ariella Oppenheim.The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East.The American Journal of Human Genetics November . AbstractA sample of Y chromosomes representing six Middle Eastern populations Ashkenazi, Sephardic, and Kurdish Jews from Israel; Muslim Kurds; Muslim Arabs from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area; and Bedouin from the Negev was analyzed for binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci. The investigation of the genetic relationship among three Jewish communities revealed that Kurdish and Sephardic Jews were indistinguishable from one another,whereas both differed slightly, yet significantly, from Ashkenazi Jews. The differences among Ashkenazim may be a result of lowlevel gene flow from European populations and/or genetic drift during isolation. Admixture between Kurdish Jews and their former Muslim host population in Kurdistan appeared to be negligible. In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be moreclosely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent Kurds, Turks, and Armeniansthan to their Arab neighbors. The two haplogroups Eu and Eu constitute a major part of the Y chromosome pool in the analyzed sample. Our data suggest that Eu originated in the northern part, and Eu in the southern part of the Fertile Crescent… Palestinian Arabs and Bedouin differed from the other Middle Eastern populations studied here, mainly in specific highfrequency Eu haplos not found in the nonArab groups. These chromosomes might have been introduced through migrations from the Arabian Peninsula during the last two millennia… MirrorExcerptsThe mostfrequent haplo in all three Jewish groups the CMH [haplo in the Appendix] segregated on a Eu , together with the three modal haplos in Palestinians and Bedouin haplos , , and . The dominant haplo of the Muslim Kurds haplo was only one microsatellitemutation step apart from the CMH and the modal haplo of the Bedouin, but it belonged to haplogroup Eu . …. Previous studies of Y chromosome polymorphisms reported a small European contribution to the Ashkenazi paternal gene pool SantachiaraBenerecetti et al. ; Hammer et al. . In our sample, this lowlevel gene flow may be reflected in the Eu chromosomes, which are found at elevated frequency . in Ashkenazi Jews and which are very frequent in Eastern Europeans Semino et al. . Alternatively, it is attractive to hypothe that Ashkenazim with Eu chromosomes represent descendants of theKhazars, originally a Turkic tribe from Central Asia, who settled in southern Russia and eastern Ukraine and converted en masse to Judaism in the ninth century of the present era, as described by Yehuda HaLevi in A.D. Dunlop .

University College London study, Judy SiegelItzkovich. Dad was out and about, while Mom stayed home.Jerusalem PostJune , . ExcerptsData on the Y chromosome indicates that the males originated in the Middle East, while the mothers mitochondrial DNA seems to indicate a local Diaspora origin in the female community founders…. [Karl Skorecki described the study as] very exciting [and] very important….

For more information about ChineseAshkenazic links, see

Steven Brays study, Steven M. Bray, Jennifer G. Mulle, Anne F. Dodd, Ann E. Pulver, Stephen Wooding, and Stephen T. Warren.Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNAS September , s . unrelated Ashkenazim were genod. Among the comparative populations were continental Europeans and EuropeanAmericans. Also used for comparison were Middle Eastern populations Palestinian Arabs, Druze, and Bedouins.AbstractThe Ashkenazi Jewish AJ population has long been viewed as a genetic isolate, yet it is still unclear how population bottlenecks, admixture, or positive selection contribute to its genetic structure. Here we analyzed a large AJ cohort and found higher linkage disequilibrium LD and identitybydescent relative to Europeans, as expected for an isolate. However, paradoxically we also found higher genetic ersity, a sign of an older or more admixed population but not of a longterm isolate. Recent reports have reaffirmed that the AJ population has a common Middle Eastern origin with other Jewish Diaspora populations, but also suggest that the AJ population, compared with other Jews, has had the most European admixture.Our analysis indeed revealed higher European admixture than predicted from previous Ychromosome analyses.Moreover, we also show that admixture directly correlates with high LD, suggesting that admixture has increased both genetic ersity and LD in the AJ population. Additionally, we applied extended haplo tests to determine whether positive selection can account for the level of AJprevalent diseases. We identified genomic regions under selection that account for lactose and alcohol tolerance, and although we found evidence for positive selection at some AJprevalent disease loci, the higher incidence of the majority of these diseases is likely the result of genetic drift following a bottleneck. Thus, the AJ population shows evidence of past founding events; however, admixture and selection have also strongly influenced its current genetic makeup.

Nathaniel Pearson.My Blood Brother in Samarkand.Stanford MagazineMay/June . Nathaniel Pearson, a scientist who has studied at Stanford University and the University of Chicago, conducted research on genetics as part of the Human Genome Project. He traveled to Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Middle East collecting genetic data using blood samples and cheek swabs. Some of his test subjects were North Caucasians, Turks, and SinoTibetans. However, it needs to be noted that the haplo Pearson describes has also been found among Moroccan Jews, and thus not only among Jews, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Indians. So the origin of the haplo remains mysterious. ExcerptsAs population geneticists, Spencer Wells and I were working with Stanford emeritus professor Luca CavalliSforza and others to study DNA variation among different groups… Our expedition eventually took us through the forests, steppes and deserts between the Black Sea and Central Asias Altai Mountains. We collected hundreds of samples from people whose ancestors included nomads, rmers, sultans and serfs and whose genetic makeup had been shaped for millennia by waves of conquest and trade in this region of the Silk Road… [O]ur expedition rolled into the old oasis city of Samarkand… Back at Stanford, my labmates and I had compared hundreds of DNA samples from men around the world, focusing on about a dozen sites along the Y chromosome… Out of curiosity, I submitted my own sample to the daase and discovered that I matched with four other donors. One was a Turkicspeaking man in western Uzbekistan, two lived in New Delhi, and one was a Tajik living in Samarkand… Sharifs Tajiks are Persianspeakers who moved east to Samarkand well before the arrival of Islam there about , years ago and the heyday of overland trade. They mixed with people already there and, later, with Turkic immigrants and others. My recent ancestors were Ashkenazi Jews in Ukraine; that population likely moved by several routes from the Middle East to Eastern Europe over the past couple of thousand years, mixing with IndoEuropean and Turkic people along the way. The common influence of IndoEuropean, Semitic and Turkic ancestry is one clue to how we might share a recent ancestor. That both Jews and Tajiks plied the Silk Road about a thousand years ago is another.See also PearsonsSt. Louis to Samarkand A Tale of Two Chromosomes. Also see hismessage herewhere he revealed he belongs to YDNA haplogroup Qb Heres a little piece I wrote a few years ago about my own little branch of the Qb tree. Qb is the same as QP and is found among about of Ashkenazic men.

as well asSeth FrantzmansJerusalem Postcommentary Terra Incognita The return of the Khazar mythmentioning a possible problem relating to the Druse Druze among other concerns.

Joel J. Elias.The Genetics of Modern Assyrians and their Relationship to Other People of the Middle East.Assyrian Health NetworkJuly , . ExcerptsBased on earlier studies using classical genetic methods, CavalliSforza et al. came to the conclusion that Jews have maintained considerable genetic similarity among themselves and with people from the Middle East, with whom they have common origins. Evidence for the latter concept was very convincingly made and extended by an international team of scientists [Hammer et al.] in a very recent research article, widely reported in the press, in which the genetics of different Middle Eastern populations were studied using a completely different method than the classical methods that form the great majority of s in the CavalliSforza et al book. The research involved direct DNA analysis of the Y chromosome, which is found only in males and is passed down from ther to son. Seven different Jewish groups from communities in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East were compared to various nonJewish populations from those areas. The results showed, first of all, that Despite their longterm residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level. Furthermore, the genetic characteristics of Jews were shown to be distinctly different from nonJewish Europeans, suggesting that very little admixture occurred between Jews and Europeans, even after about generations of Jews in Europe…. In ct, the Palestinians and Syrians were so close to the Jews in genetic characteristics that they mapped within the central cluster of Jewish populations.

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Eva Fernndez, Alejandro PrezPrez, Cristina Gamba, Eva Prats, Pedro Cuesta, Josep Anfruns, Miquel Molist, Eduardo ArroyoPardo, and Daniel Turbn.Ancient DNA Analysis of B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands.PLoS Genetics June , e. Some ancient skeletons from the PrePottery Neolithic B PPNB sites at Tell Halula and Tell Ramad in whats now Syria had the K mtDNA haplogroup. This PPNB population genetically clusters with the modernday Ashkenazi Jews, Csng people, and the population of Cyprus, who all have high frequencies of K. Modern Syrians are in a different cluster. The evidence weighs against Costa et al.s interpretation that the K haplogroups that Ashkenazim possess reflect European ancestors rather than Middle Eastern ones. Fernndez et al. wroteAnother interesting case are the Ashkenazi Jews, who a frequency of haplogroup K similar to the PPNB sample together with low nonsignificant pairwise Fst values, which taken together suggests an ancient Near Eastern origin. This observation clearly contradicts the results of a recent study, where a detailed phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA lineages has suggested a predominantly European origin for the Ashkenazi communities [Costa et al.] Moreover, in the light of the evidence presented here of a loss of lineages in the Near East since Neolithic times, the absence of Ashkenazi mtDNA founder clades in the Near East should not be taken as a definitive argument for its absence in the past.

Admixture demonstrates the connection of Ashkenazi, North African, and Sephardi Jews, with the most similar nonJewish populations to Ashkenazi Jews being Mediterranean Europeans from Italy Sicily, Abruzzo, Tuscany, Greece, and Cyprus. When subtracting thek component, which perhaps originates in Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews from admixture with European hosts, the best matches for membership patterns of the Ashkenazi Jews shift to the Levant Cypriots, Druze, Lebanese, and Samaritans. Considering the IBD threshold of Mb for shared segments, Ashkenazi Jews are expected to show no significant IBD sharing with any population from which they have been isolated for [approximately more than] generations. Ashkenazi Jews show significant IBD sharing only with Eastern Europeans, North African Jews, and Sephardi Jews.

Mark G. Thomas, Michael E. Weale, Abigail L. Jones, Martin B. Richards, Alice Smith, Nicola Redhead, Antonio Torroni, Rosaria Scozzari, Fiona Gratrix, Ayele Tarekegn, James F. Wilson, Cristian Capelli, Neil Bradman, and David B. Goldstein.Founding Mothers of Jewish Communities Geographically Separated Jewish Groups Were Independently Founded by Very Few Female Ancestors.The American Journal of Human Genetics June . The study collected mtDNA from about Jews and nonJews from around the world, including Ashkenazic Jews and Georgians, Uzbeks, Germans, Berbers, Ethiopians, Arabs, etc. . of sampled Iraqi Jews have an mtDNA pattern known as U, compared to . of Ashkenazic Jews, . of Moroccan Jews, . of ethnic Berbers, . of ethnic Germans, . of Iranian Jews, . of Georgian Jews, . of Bukharian Jews, . of Yemenite Jews, . of Ethiopian Jews, . of Indian Jews, . of Syrian Arabs, . of Georgians, . of Uzbeks, . of Yemeni Arabs, . of Ethiopians, . of Asian Indians, . of Israeli Arabs. According to Vincent Macaulay, U is found also among some Turks, Iraqis, Caucasus tribes, Alpine Europeans, North Central Europeans, Kurds, Azerbaijanis, Eastern Mediterranean Europeans, Central Mediterranean Europeans, Western Mediterranean Europeans, and southeastern Europeans. Another pattern, called Haplo I, was found among . of Bukharan Jews, . of Ashkenazic Jews, . of Iraqi Jews, . of Iranian Jews, . of ethnic Germans, and . of ethnic Asian Indians, and none of the other groups among iniduals tested. According to Vincent Macaulay, Haplo I is found also among some Northeastern Europeans, North Central Europeans, Caucasus tribes, Northwestern Europeans, and Scandinavians. Yet another pattern, called Haplo J, was found among . of Iraqi Jews, . of Iranian Jews, . of Yemenite Jews, and . of Israeli Arabs, and none of the other groups among iniduals tested. According to Vincent Macaulay, Haplo J is found also among some Iraqi Arabs, Bedouins, Palestinian Arabs, and Azerbaijanis. To compare with Vincent Macaulays research on mtDNA, visitSupplementary data from Richards et al. . AbstractWe have analyzed the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA from each of nine geographically separated Jewish groups, eight nonJewish host populations, and an Israeli Arab/Palestinian population, and we have compared the differences found in Jews and nonJews with those found using Ychromosome data that were obtained, in most cases, from the same population samples. The results suggest that most Jewish communities were founded by relatively few women, that the founding process was independent in different geographic areas, and that subsequent genetic input from surrounding populations was limited on the female side. In sharp contrast to this, the paternally inherited Y chromosome shows ersity similar to that of neighboring populations and shows no evidence of founder effects. These specific differences demonstrate an important role for culture in shaping patterns of genetic variation and are likely to have significant epidemiological implications for studies involving these populations. We illustrate this by presenting data from a panel of Xchromosome microsatellites, which indicates that, in the case of the Georgian Jews, the femalespecific founder event appears to have resulted in elevated levels of linkage disequilibrium.ExcerptUnfortunately, in many cases, it is not possible to infer the geographic origin of the founding mtDNAs within the different Jewish groups with any confidence…. In two cases, however, comparison [of Jewish mtDNA] with the published data does provide some indication of the possible geographic origins of the modal s. The modal in the Bene Israel is a onestep mutational neighbor of a haplo present in the Indian sample, as well as being a onestep neighbor of a previously identified in India Kivisild et al. a, b. Similarly, the coonest in the Ethiopian Jewish sample is also present in the nonJewish Ethiopian sample and occurs in the worldwide mtDNA daase only in Somalia Watson et al. . Other highfrequency haplos in the Ethiopian Jewish sample are also found almost entirely in Africa data not shown. The lack of an indication of a Middle Eastern origin for these haplos, on the basis of the Richards daase, makes local recruitment a more reasonable explanation in these two cases. pp. ,

Study North African, Iraqi Jewry nearly genetic twins.Jerusalem PostNovember , . ExcerptsSephardic North African Jews are genetic twins of their Iraq brethren, says a study by researchers [Nebel, Faerman, et al.] at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem…. Although the genetic affinity of Jews to the ancient, Middle Eastern nonArab populations is greater than to Arabs as shown in the present study, a substantial portion of Y chromosomes of Jews and Palestinian Muslim Arabs belong to the same chromosome pool. An additional of the Muslim Arab chromosomes belong to a very closely related lineage… [because] part or perhaps the majority of Muslim Arabs in the Land of Israel descended from local inhabitants, mainly Christians and Jews, who had converted after the Islamic conquest of the th century A.D.

Until now, it had been widely assumed by geneticists that the Ashkenazi communities of Northern and Central Europe were founded by men who came from the Middle East, perhaps as traders, and by the women from each local population whom they took as wives and converted to Judaism. But the new study, published online this week in The American Journal of Human Genetics, suggests that the men and their wives migrated to Europe together. The researchers, Doron Behar and Karl Skorecki of the Technion and Ramban Medical Center in Hai, and colleagues elsewhere, report that just four women, who may have lived , to , years ago, are the ancestors of percent of Ashkenazis alive today. The Technion teams analysis was based on mitochondrial DNA… inherited only through the female line. … Looking at other populations, the Technion team found that some people in Egypt, Arabia and the Levant also carried the set of mutations that defines one of the four women. They argue that all four probably lived originally in the Middle East. … David Goldstein, now of Duke University, reported in that the mitochondrial DNA of women in Jewish communities around the world did not seem to be Middle Eastern, and indeed each community had its own genetic pattern. But in some cases the mitochondrial DNA was closely related to that of the host community. Dr. Goldstein and his colleagues suggested that the genesis of each Jewish community, including the Ashkenazis, was that Jewish men had arrived from the Middle East, taken wives from the host population and converted them to Judaism, after which there was no further intermarriage with nonJews. The Technion team suggests a different origin for the Ashkenazi community if the women too are Middle Eastern in origin, they would presumably have accompanied their husbands. … Dr. Hammer said the new study moves us forward in trying to understand Jewish population history. His own recent research, he said, suggests that the Ashkenazi population expanded through a series of bottlenecks events that squeeze a population down to small numbers… But Dr. Goldstein said the new report did not alter his previous conclusion. The mitochondrial DNAs of a small, isolated population tend to change rapidly as some lineages ll extinct and others become more common, a process known as genetic drift. In his view, the Technion team has confirmed that genetic drift has played a major role in shaping Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA. But the linkage with Middle Eastern populations is not statistically significant, he said. Because of genetic drift, Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNAs have developed their own pattern, which makes it very hard to tell their source. This differs from the patrilineal case, Dr. Goldstein said, where there is no question of a Middle Eastern origin.

Tamara Traubman. A new study shows that the genetic makeup of Jews and Arabs is almost identical, and that both groups share common prehistoric ancestors.Haaretz. ExcerptsAbout twothirds of Israeli Arabs and Arabs in the territories and a similar proportion of Israeli Jews are the descendents of at least three common prehistoric ancestors who lived in the Middle East in the Neolithic period, about , years ago. This is the finding of a new study conducted by an international team of scholars headed by Prof. Ariella Oppenheim, a senior geneticist in the Hebrew Universitys hematology department and at Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem. In the study, soon to be published in the scientific journal Human Genetics, the researchers probed the history of Jewish and Arab men by analyzing the genetic changes in the Y chromosome… The study was conducted by doctoral student Almut Nebel, with the participation of Dr. Dvora Filon and Dr. Marina Faerman of the Hebrew University and Dr. Mark Thomas of the University College of London. The results of the study, says Prof. Oppenheim, support the historical documentation according to which the Arabs are descendents of an ancient population of the country and that a large proportion of them were Jews who converted to Islam after Islam reached Eretz Israel in the seventh century CE…. They examined Palestinians from Israel and the Palestinian Authority and Ashkenazi and Sepharadi Jews. Unlike the previous study, they also traced changes in DNA that occur more frequently, at a rate of about once in , generations. In this way, they discovered that Jews and Arabs have common prehistoric ancestors who lived here until just the last few thousand years…. In view of the small geographical area of Israel and the Palestinian Authority, the researchers were surprised to discover that some Palestinians on the West Bank have a unique genetic trait that is reflected in a relatively high frequency of certain genetic signs. This ct indicates that they are the descendents of people who have lived here for a few hundred years at least. The unique genetic feature of the Palestinians from the West Bank became even more explicit when the researchers studied a genetic defect that may cause a blood disease known as thalassemia. There are many genetic defects that can cause thalassemia, but percent of the mountain dwellers examined carried the identical defect, compared to only percent of Galilee dwellers and percent of Gaza residents. Dr. Filon says that the unique genetic trait is characteristic of a population that has lived in the same place for many generations.

Sharon Begley.The DNA of Abrahams Children.NewsweekWeb Exclusive June , . ExcerptsThe latest DNA volume weighs in on the controversial, centuriesold and now revived in a book claim that European Jews are all the descendants of Khazars, a Turkic group of the north Caucasus who converted to Judaism in the late eighth and early ninth century. The DNA has spoken no. … To sort it out, researchers collected DNA from Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, and Ashkenazi Jews around New York City; Turkish Sephardic Jews in Seattle; Greek Sephardic Jews in Thessaloniki and Athens; and Italian Jews in Rome as part of the Jewish HapMap Project. All four grandparents of each participant had to have come from the same community. … Jewish populations, that is, have retained their genetic coherence just as they have retained their cultural and religious traditions, despite migrations from the Middle East into Europe, North Africa, and beyond over the centuries, says geneticist Harry Ostrer of NYU Langone Medical Center, who led the study. Each Diaspora group has distinctive genetic features representative of each groups genetic history, he says, but each also shares a set of common genetic threads dating back to their common origin in the Middle East. Each of the Jewish populations formed its own distinctive cluster, indicating the shared ancestry and relative genetic isolation of the members of each of those groups. The various Jewish groups were more related to each other than to nonJews, as well. Within every Jewish group, iniduals shared as much of their genome as two fourth or fifth cousins, with Italian, Syrian, Iranian, and Iraqi Jews the most inbred, in the sense that they married within the small, closeknit community. In general, the genetic similarity of any two groups was larger the closer they lived to one another, but there was an exception Turkish and Italian Jews were most closely related genetically, but are quite separated geographically. Historical records suggest that Iranian and Iraqi Jews date from communities that formed in Persia and Babylon, respectively, in the fourth to sixth centuries B.C.E., and the DNA confirms that. The genetic signatures of these groups show that they remained relatively isolatedinbredfor some , years. The DNA also reveals that these Middle Eastern Jews erged from the ancestors of todays European Jews about to generations ago, or sometime during the first millennium B.C.E.

Dror Rosengarten. Y Chromosome Haplos Among Members of the Caucasus Jewish Communities.Proceedings of the th International Conference on Ancient DNA and Associated Biomolecules, July , . Abstract excerpt…buccal swab genomic DNA samples were collected from unrelated males from the Mountain Jewish community and from unrelated males from the Georgian Jewish community… Corresponding haplo frequencies in other Jewish communities and among neighboring nonJewish populations were derived from the literature. Based on a variety of genetic distance and admixture measures we found that majority of Kavkazi Jewish haplos were shared with other Jewish communities and were consistent with a Mediterranean origin. This result strengthens previous reports, which indicated a shared ancestral pool of genetic haplos for most contemporary Jewish communities. In the case of the Georgian Jewish samples, both Mediterranean and European haplos were found. This could indicate either a Mediterranean origin with a European genetic contribution or a European source with a Mediterranean contribution. Generally, Georgian Jews were found to be closer to European populations than to Mediterranean populations. Despite their geographic proximity, there was a significant genetic distance between the Mountain and Georgian Jewish communities, at least based on Yhaplo analysis…

Page It is worth mentioning that, on the basis of protein polymorphisms [which are not to be confused with Y chromosome polymorphisms], most Jewish populations cluster very closely with Iraqis Livs et al. that the latter, in turn, cluster very closely with Kurds CavalliSforza et al. .ObservationsIn the articleThe DNA revolution in population geneticsby Luigi Luca CavalliSforza,Trends Genet., No. , we learn that protein polymorphisms were studied in the previous generation of population genetic analysis, hence the term classical polymorphsisms is often applied to them, but today the new technologies test Y DNA and mtDNA instead.

Peter A. Underhill, P. Shen, A. A. Lin, L. Jin, G. Passarino, W. H. Yang, E. Kauffman, Batsheva BonnTamir, J. Bertranpetit, P. Francalacci, M. Ibrahim, T. Jenkins, J. R. Kidd, S. Q. Mehdi, M. T. Seielstad, R. S. Wells, A. Piazza, R. W. Davis, M. W. Feldman, Luigi Luca CavalliSforza, and P. J. Oefner.Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations.Nature Genetics .Sequence information for the Y chromosome markers.

Nadine Epstein.Family Matters Funny, We Dont Look Jewish.Hadassah Magazine January . Excerpts…As the irhaired, blueeyed daughter of a woman who looks more Nordic than Jewish, I always wondered if I was really Semitic. My siblings and I didnt look much like most other Jews Ashkenazic or Serdic… As a child, I blamed our looks on Cossack rapes. When I read Arthur Koestlers The Thirteenth Tribe, I bought his theory that Ashkenazim were descended from the Khazars, a Caucasian people who had converted to Judaism in the Middle Ages. The search for genetic knowledge strikes a deep chord among Jews. Last year, through my local genealogy society, I met Dr. Harry Ostrer, head of the Human Genetics Program at the New York University School of Medicine… The study of evolutionary and genetic history through DNA analysis is transforming what we know about ourselves… In , Karl Skorecki in Hai, Michael Hammer in Tucson and several London researchers surprised everyone by finding evidence of the Jewish priestly line of males, the Kohanim. Half of Ashkenazic men and slightly more than half of Serdic men who claimed to be Kohanim were found to have a distinctive set of genetic markers on their Y chromosome, it highly possible that they are descendants of a single male or group of related males who lived between and B.C.E., about the time of Moses and Aaron. The Kohen marker is but a fragment of the information gleaned from DNA analysis… A study published last year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science looked at the Y chromosomes of , males from seven Jewish population groups and came up with a profile of Jewish genes. They found major Ychromosome patterns or signatures, called haplos. The haplos of all but Ethiopian Jews shared a similar pattern, says Ostrer, a member of the study team led by Hammer and Batsheva BonneTamir of TelAviv University. This means we are not descended from one person or tribes but founder males. The same haplos, by the way, are common among Middle Eastern Arabs including Palestinians and Syrians. They also show up in Greeks and other ancient Mediterranean lines, who may date from the time before Jews emerged as a people… We are definitely Jews, says Ostrer. We share Jewish haplo patterns. Ostrer estimates the European admixture over generations is an extremely low . percent. The study also found that male Jews of Russian and Polish ancestry do not have a chromosome profile similar to Russian and Polish nonJews. Haplos have also helped the identity seekers to retrace the path of the wandering Ashkenazic Jew. We who hail from East Europe most likely migrated there from Alsace and Rhineland, says Ostrer, as confirmed by Yiddish, a form of low German. Based on his study of Roman Jews, Ostrer concludes that Ashkenazim lived in Italy for a thousand years before they migrated into Alsace and Rhineland. Theres no genetic difference between Ashkenazic and Roman Jews, who say they have lived in Italy for , years, he observes. Ostrer and Hammer are now conducting the largest study of Jewish genetics so r, trying to determine how we are all related, and tracing the migrations that formed communities during the , years of diaspora… Being Jewish is a spiritual, metaphysical state and DNA is a physical characteristic, like nose , said Skorecki in an interview in The Jerusalem Report. But we wouldnt dare go around saying were going to determine who is Jewish by the length of their nose. Similarly were not going to determine who is Jewish by the sequence of their DNA…. And so for me, the positives of Ychromosome analysis r outweigh the possible negatives. We are an ancient group of clans descended from polygamous men, and our genetic history is part of the redefinition of humanity… Blonde genes occur in Middle Eastern groups as well, he [Ostrer] explains. There is no evidence that white skin and blue eyes originated in northern Europe. That is a Nordic myth. Semitic people had the whole range…. Researchers have only begun to study the mitochondria of Jewish women… Mitochondria will likely reveal different data Women were more likely than men to relocate and convert due to marriage… My ther and brother are descendants of the clan known as Haplo Four, the second largest group of Ashkenazim, and common among Middle Eastern and southern European populations. My son is descended from a clan that is part of Haplo One, which has a Ychromosome pattern common in central and western Asian populations… These clans were formed a long time ago, says Ostrer. They all ended up in the Middle East and landed in Ur where Abraham lived. He convinced some of them to adopt [the God of Israel] and when they did, they brought their Y chromosomes with them. Their nextdoor neighbors waited for Allah. They brought their chromosomes with them, too.Villa AriellaJewish Genetics

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NoelVillas and Apartmentswas eslished in . Today, Noel is one of the leading developer andtrusted buildersof villas andapartments in Kerala. Our Premium residential apartments, commercial and villa projects are in Cochin, Kottayam and Thiruvalla. We have a commercial project in Sea port air port road at Kakkanad Cochin, where office spaces are available for lease and rental. Thisc…

Noel Earth Luxury and Premium Apartments in Kadavanthra sample flat is……

Noel Ecoden Stone Laying was held on at Noel……

The information, models, drawing, illustrations, e brochures, videos, photographs, and art renderings in represent artistic impressions only and the information contained herein, the fittings, finishes, features, floor , finish, and colour and other in the visuals, which are for general guidance only, and are subject to change. We have not authorized anyone to make any oral promises or assurances on our behalf with regard to the specifications of the apartments/villas. Although attempts to ensure the integrity, correctness and authenticity of the site, it makes no guarantees whatsoever as to its completeness, correctness or accuracy. The owners, investors and its employees will not be liable for any losses or damages, monetary or otherwise, that result from actions taken after reading the contents published on You are therefore requested to directly verify all details and aspects of any proposed booking/acquisition of units directly with our authorized sales team. Please contact ,, for further information.

Noel For Luxury Apartments in Cochin. Noel Onam celebrations……

Villa AriellaVillas with p

Villa AriellaVillas with pTraditional folklore music and dancing festival

Interviewing Dimitris Kourkoulos by Sarah Button

I must say this is not just a beerfestival like those around the world. It is a mixture of different celebrations and cultural events, together with a great number of local business and products.

The Arillas Trail Opening was a great Success again. Loads of people were there from the entire island and many tourist. The pictures say it all.

Villa Ionia is unique. On the increasingly exclusive North West coast, there are no other rental villas that offer the combination of stunning sea, sunset and local island views, double ensuite bedrooms and, unoverlooked . For its about …

Discover the charms of nature hidden in the ancient trails of the area around Arillas. Those ancient trails are given new life thanks to the contribution of the local cultural club and the people of Arillas .

The newly renovated Robins Nest is located in an elevated and secluded position amongst the olive groves, affording it complete , a perfect villa rental location! The view from all rooms is sea cing, the cypress and olive trees in the valley bel…

The annual Wine Festival in Arillas Corfu

MAY DAY walking on Arillas Trail with all our friends

The villa is very private, but still close to the village. There are only more villas in this area, one around the corner and two down at the rocky beach. The villa is about sqm and has large bedrooms, an activity room with a so an additional pe…

MAY DAY walking on Arillas Trail with all our friends

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TheArillas cultural Organizationwhich is consisted by over members from Arillas, Afionas and Kavadades has eslished that the Annual  Wine Festival will be taking place this year onSaturday  the st September .

The house, traditional in , offers accommodation on two levels, with the entrance level being on the upper floor. A hallway leads to a small, formal sitting area. Double bedroom with en suite shower room enjoying the views. Twin bedroom with small en…

Buddha House is situated just km from Arillas beach. The house is set in sq mts of gardens affording it total , space and security. You enter the property via remote controlled gates, the cobbled drive leads you to the garage area and the pa…

Come and walk the Arillas Trail with us on Tuesday the first  May .

The dates are now officially announced for the next great Corfu Beer festival in Arillas.

The above businesses are all based in Arillas or have their activities taking place in the surrounding area. They are listed on our website for guidance purposes only.

Villas with private pool in Arillas and the surrounding area

On Thursday the th of May there will be this years first festival in Arillas. It takes place near the local Church and old school of Arillas village which is about one and a half km from the beach on the way to Magoulades on the main road.

On Saturday the th June and Sunday the st of  July

The only purpose for them being listed on this website is to enable the best services and offers to be provided to the visitors that access them through our s.

* bedrooms guests * Private swimming pool on lower level x m depth .m * Openplan living/dining/kitchen area with full cooker, fridgefreezer, microwave, dishwasher and washing machine, TV for DVD only * Iron, ironing board, hairdryer…

Villa Theia is a privately owned villa, located between Arillas and Afionas.The villa has bedrooms, bathrooms and an open plan living/dining/kitchen area. Its been furnished to create a relaxed and comforle atmosphere with many added personal touc…

The AnnualArillas Trailevent  will take place on May the first.!

Villa Joanna was built with the intention of providing all the comforts of modern day living whilst you experience precious moments of joy and serenity under the sun.Its meters from the idyllic sunset beach of Arillas on the Greek island of Corfu.The…

The villas are , m and were built in due to be completed in April , they are completely private. What does each villa have A bedroom with a double bed and en suite, with a desk office access to the internet, a big wardrobe and a tel…

Helios Court Villa is a modern build in a that pays tribute to the classical Venetian heritage in the architecture of Corfu. Sitting comforly in its private surroundings the spacious, air conditioned, villa provides beautifully appointed bedroo…

The villa is Located above Arillas/Ag. Georgious on the Afionas/Kavadades border. The Villa has a spacious first floor living/dining/kitchen area with extensive balconies with r reaching views. There are Double Bedrooms all ensuite. Outside there i…

Villa Linakis with Private Pool is a stunning country house by the sea. Bedrooms, Bathrooms, Sleeps Baby. Completed in Villa Linakis is a traditional villa occupying an enviable position close to Arillas. This welcoming villa sits in th…

Villa Hagga is situated between Arillas and Afionas and is privately owned. The property is configured as a bedroom villa with a separate one bedroom apartment below. The villa has a kitchen dining area on the first floor and sitting room, bedrooms …

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